Biomass as Feedstock

Living reference work entry

Abstract

The world has a wide variety of biofeedstocks. Biomass is a term used to describe any material of recent biological origin, including plant materials such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops, or animal manure. In this chapter, the formation of biomass by photosynthesis and the different mechanisms of photosynthesis giving rise to biomass classification are discussed. Then, these classifications and composition of biomass are explained. The various methods used to make biomass amenable for energy, fuel, and chemical production are discussed next. These methods include pretreatment of biomass, biochemical routes of conversion like fermentation, anaerobic digestion, transesterification, and thermochemical routes like gasification and pyrolysis. An overview of current and future biomass feedstock materials, for example, algae, perennial grass, and other forms of genetically modified plants, is described including the current feedstock availability in the United States.

Keywords

Sugar Hydrolysis Chlorophyll Ketone NADPH 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

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