Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  • L. Reijnders
Living reference work entry


Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste management, including CO2 capture and sequestration. Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions are often part of wider environmental assessments, which also cover other environmental impacts. Such wider-ranging assessments allow for considering “trade-offs” between (reduction of) greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts and co-benefits of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Databases exist which contain estimates of current greenhouse gas emissions linked to fossil fuel use and to many current agricultural and industrial activities. However, these databases do allow for substantial uncertainties in emission estimates. Assessments of greenhouse gas emissions linked to new processes and products are subject to even greater data-linked uncertainty. Variability in outcomes of life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions may furthermore originate in different choices regarding functional units, system boundaries, time horizons, and the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions to outputs in multi-output processes.

Life cycle assessments may be useful in the identification of life cycle stages that are major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions and of major reduction options, in the verification of alleged climate benefits, and to establish major differences between competing products. They may also be helpful in the analysis and development of options, policies, and innovations aimed at mitigation of climate change.

The main findings from available life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions are summarized, offering guidance in mitigating climate change. Future directions in developing life cycle assessment and its application are indicated. These include better handling of indirect effects, of uncertainty, and of changes in carbon stock of recent biogenic origin and improved comprehensiveness in dealing with climate warming.


Life Cycle Assessment Carbon Stock Global Warming Potential Carbon Footprinting Black Carbon Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andersson K, Ohlsson T, Olsson P (1998) Screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of tomato ketchup: a case study. J Cleaner Prod 6:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrae ASG, Andersen O (2010) Life cycle assessments of consumer electronics – are they consistent? Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:827–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreae MO, Gelenesér A (2006) Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols. Atmos Chem Phys 6:3131–3148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ardente F, Beccali G, Cellura M, Lo Brano V (2005) Life cycle assessment of a solar thermal collector. Renew Energy 30:1031–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bala A, Raugei M, Benviste G, Gazulla C, Fullana-i-Palmer P (2010) Simplified tools for global warming potential evaluation: when ‘good enough’ is best. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:489–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barber WPF (2009) Influence of anaerobic digestion on the carbon footprint of various sewage sludge treatment options. Water Environ J 25:170–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Basset-Mens C, Anibar L, Durand P, van der Werf HMG (2006) Spatialised fate factors for nitrate in catchments: modeling approach and implication for LCA results. Sci Total Environ 367:367–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Batlles FI, Rosiek S, Munoz I, Fernandez-Alba AB (2010) Environmental assessment of the CIESOL solar building after two years of operation. Environ Sci Technol 44:3587–3593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertram M, Buxmann K, Furrer P (2009) Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions related to aluminum transport applications. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14:S62–S69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Björklund A, Finnveden G (2005) Recycling revisited: life cycle comparisons of global warming impact and total energy use of waste management strategies. Resour Conserv Recycl 44:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blengini GA, di Carlo T (2010) The changing role of life cycle phases, subsystems and materials in the LCA of low energy buildings. Energy Build 42:869–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boulay A, Bulle C, Bayart B (2011) Regional characterization of fresh water use in LCA: modeling direct impacts on human health. Environ Sci Technol 45:8948–8957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyd SB, Horvath A, Dornfeld D (2009) Lifecycle energy demand and global warming potential of computational logic. Environ Sci Technol 43:7303–7309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyd SB, Horvath A, Dornfeld DA (2010) Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010. Environ Res Lett 5:014011 (8 pp)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brakkee KW, Huijbregts MAJ, Eickhout B, Hendriks AJ, van de Meent D (2008) Characterisation factors for greenhouse gases at a midpoint level including indirect effects based on calculations with the IMAGE model. Int J Life Cycle Assess 13:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brehmer B, Boom RM, Sanders J (2009) Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries. Chem Eng Des 87:1103–1119Google Scholar
  17. Bruun TB, de Neergaard A, Lawrence D, Ziegler AD (2009) Environmental consequences of the demise in swidden cultivation in southeast Asia: carbon storage and soil quality. Hum Ecol 37:375–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlsson-Kanyama A, Gonzalez AD (2009) Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1704S–1709SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chapman L (2007) Transport and climate change: a review. J Transp Geogr 15:354–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chester M, Horvath A (2010) Life-cycle assessment of high-speed rail: the case of California. Environ Res Lett 5:014003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choi B, Shin H, Lee S, Hur T (2006) Life cycle assessment of a personal computer and its effective recycling rate. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christensen TH, Gentil E, Boldrin A, Larsen AW, Weidema BP, Hauschild M (2009) C balance, carbon dioxide emissions and global warming potentials in LCA-modelling of waste management systems. Waste Manage Res 27:707–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciantar C, Hadfield M (2000) An environmental evaluation of mechanical systems using environmentally acceptable refrigerants. Int J Life Cycle Assess 5:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Citherlet S, Defaux T (2007) Energy and environmental comparison of three variants of a family house during its whole life span. Build Environ 42:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Citherlet S, Di Guglielmo F, Gay J (2000) Window and advanced glazing systems in life cycle assessment. Energy Build 32:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarens AF, Resurreccion EP, White MA, Colosi LM (2010) Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks. Environ Sci Technol 44:1813–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crutzen PJ, Mosier AR, Smith KA, Winiwater W (2007) N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 7:11191–11205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cullen JM, Allwood JM (2009) The role of washing machines in life cycle assessment studies. J Ind Ecol 13(1):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Curran MA (2003) Do bio-based products move us towards sustainability? A look at three USEPA case studies. Environ Prog 22:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Eicker MO, Hischier R, Hurni H, Zah R (2010) Using non local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: the case of Latin America. Environ Impact Assess Rev 30:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Gorter H, Just DR (2010) The social costs and benefits of biofuels: the intersection of environmental, energy and agricultural policy. Appl Econ Perspect Policy 32:4–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Gracia A, Rincón L, Castell A, Jiménez M, Boer D, Medrano M, Cabeza LG (2010) Life cycle assessment of the inclusion of phase change materials in experimental buildings. Energy Build 42:1517–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Koning A, Schowanek D, Dewaele J, Weisbrod A, Guinee J (2010) Uncertainties in a carbon footprint model for detergents: quantifying the confidence in a comparative result. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Schryver AM, Brakkee KW, Goedkoop MJ, Huijbregts MAJ (2009) Characterization factors for global warming in life cycle assessment based on damages to humans and ecosystems. Environ Sci Technol 43:1689–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Vries M, de Boer IJM (2010) Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: a review of life cycle assessments. Livest Sci 128:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Demou E, Hellweg S, Wilson P, Hammond SK, McKone TE (2009) Evaluating indoor exposure modeling alternatives for LCA: a case study in the vehicle repair industry. Environ Sci Technol 43:5804–5810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Denholm P, Kulcinski GL (2004) Life cycle energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions from large scale energy storage systems. Energy Convers Manage 45:2153–2172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Douglas GA, Harrison GF, Chick JP (2008) Life cycle assessment of Seagen marine current turbine. J Eng Marit Environ 222M:1–12Google Scholar
  39. Duan H, Eugster M, Hischier R, Streicher-Porte Li J (2009) Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer. Sci Total Environ 407:1755–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ELCD (2008) European commission joint research centre – European reference life cycle data system.
  41. Erlandsson M, Levin P, Myhre L (1997) Energy and environmental consequences of an additional wall insulation of a dwelling. Build Environ 32:129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fargione J, Hill J, Tilman D, Polasky S, Hawthorne P (2008) Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319:1235–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fava J, Baer S, Cooper J (2009) Increasing demands for life cycle assessments in North America. J Ind Ecol 13:491–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fehnann J (2000) Industrial non-energy, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Technol Forecast Soc 63:313–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Finkbeiner M, Hoffmann R, Ruhland K, Liebhart D, Stark B (2006) Application of life cycle assessment for the environmental certificate of the Mercedes-Benz S class. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:240–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Finnveden G, Hauschild MZ, Ekvall T, Guine J, Heijungs R, Hellweg S, Koehler A, Pennington D, Suh S (2009) Recent developments in life cycle assessment. J Environ Manage 91:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foley JM, Rozendal RA, Hertle CK, Lant PA, Rabaey K (2010) Life cycle assessment of high rate anaerobic treatment, microbial fuel cell, and microbial electrolysis cells. Environ Sci Technol 44:3629–3637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frederici M, Ulgati S, Basosi R (2009) Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: an energy and environmental comparison. Energy 24:1493–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frischknecht R, Jungbluth N, Althaus H, Doka G, Dones R, Heck T, Hellweg S, Hischier R, Nemecek T, Rebitzer G, Spielmann M (2005) The ecoinvent database; overview and methodological framework. Int J Life Cycle Assess 10:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Frischknecht R, Büsser S, Krewitt W (2009) Environmental assessment of future technologies: how to trim LCA to fit this goal? Int J Life Cycle Assess 14:584–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Froese RL, Shonnard DR, Miller CA, Koers KP, Johnson DM (2010) An evaluation of greenhouse gas mitigation options for coal-fired power plants in the US Great Lakes States. Bio-mass Bioenergy 34:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fruergaard T, Astrup T, Ekvall T (2009) Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. Waste Manage Res 27:724–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gandreault C, Samson R, Stuart PR (2010) Energy decision making in a pulp and paper mill: selection of LCA system boundary. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Geisler G, Hellweg S, Hungerbühler K (2005) Uncertainty analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA): case study on plant-protection products and implications for decision making. Int J Life Cycle Assess 10:184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gong X, Nie Z, Wang Z, Zuo T (2008) Research and development of Chinese LCA database and LCA software. Rare Met 25(6):101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gössling S, Garrod B, Aall C, Hille J, Peeters P (2010) Food management in tourism: reducing tourism’s carbon ‘footprint’. Tourism Manage 32:534–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Granovskii M, Dincer I, Rosen MA (2006) Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. J Power Sources 159:1186–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Greene DL (2011) Rebound 2007: analysis of U.S. light duty vehicle travel statistics. Energy Policy. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.03.083Google Scholar
  59. Guinee JB (ed) (2002) Handbook on life cycle assessment. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  60. Haines A, McMichael AJ, Smith KR, Roberts I, Woodcock J, Markandya A, Armstoing BG, Campbell-Lendrum D, Dangour AD, Davies M, Bruce N, Tonne C, Barrett M, Wilkinson P (2009) Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers. Lancet 374:2104–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hansen J, Sato M, Kharecha P, Beerling D, Berner R, Masson-Delmotte V, Pagani M, Raymao M, Royer DL, Zachos JC (2008) Target atmospheric CO2: where should humanity aim. Open Atmos Sci J 2:217–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harrison GP, Maclean EJ, Karamanlis S, Ochoa LF (2010) Life cycle assessment of the transmission network in Great Britain. Energy Policy 38:3622–3631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Havlik P, Schneider UA, Schmid E, Böttcher H, Fritz S, Skalsky R, Aoki K, de Cara S, Kinderman G, Kraxner F, Leduc S, McCallum I, Mosnier A, Sauer T, Obersteiner M (2011) Global land-use implications of first and second generation biofuel targets. Energ Policy. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.03.030Google Scholar
  64. Heijungs R, Suh S (2002) The computational structure of life cycle assessment. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hellweg S, Fischer U, Hofstetter TB, Hungerbühler K (2005) Site-dependent fate assessment in LCA: transport of heavy metals in soil. J Cleaner Prod 13:341–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hellweg S, Demou E, Bruzzi R, Meijer A, Rosenbaum RK, Huijbregts MA, McKone TE (2009) Integrating human indoor air pollutant exposure within life cycle impact assessment. Environ Sci Technol 43:1670–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hertel TW, Golub AA, Jones AD, O’Hare M, Plevin RJ, Kammen DM (2010) Effects of US maize ethanol on global land use and greenhouse gas emissions: estimating market-mediated responses. Bioscience 60:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hertwich E (2009) A concise guide to the biofuels environmental conundrum. J Ind Ecol 13:990–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hertwich EG (2013) Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA. Environ Sci Technol 47:9604–9611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hertwich EG, McKone TE, Pease WS (2000) A systematic uncertainty analysis of an evaluative fate and exposure model. Risk Anal 20:439–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Highwood EJ, Kinnersly R (2006) When smoke gets in your eyes. The multiple impacts of atmospheric black carbon on climate, air quality and health. Environ Int 32:560–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hischier R, Walser T (2012) Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps. Sci Total Environ 425:271–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoglmeier K, Weber-Blaschke G, Richter K (2014) Utilization of recovered wood in cascades versus utilization of primary wood- a comparison with life cycle assessment using system expansion. Int J Life Cycle Assess. doi:10.1007/s11367-014-0774-6Google Scholar
  74. Hong J, Shaked S, Rosenbaum RK, Jolliet O (2010) Analytical uncertainty propagation in life cycle inventory and impact assessment: application to an automobile front panel. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hospido A, Davis J, Berlin J, Sonesson U (2010) A review of methodological issues affecting LCA of novel food products. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Huang Y, Bird R, Heidrich O (2009) Development of the life cycle assessment tool for construction and maintenance of asphalt pavements. J Cleaner Prod 17:283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Huijbregts MAJ, Thissen UMJ, Guinee JB, Jager T, Kalf D, van der Meent D, Ragas AMJ, Wegener Sleeswijk A, Reijnders L (2000) Priority assessment of toxic substances in life cycle assessment. Part I: calculation of toxicity potentials for 181 substances with the nested multi-media fate exposure and effects model USES-LCA. Chemosphere 41:541–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Huijbregts MAJ, Norris G, Bretz K, Giroth A, Maurice B, von Bahr B, Weidema B, de Beaufort ASH (2001) Framework for modeling data uncertainty in life cycle inventories. Int J Life Cycle Assess 6:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Huijbregts MAJ, Gilijamse W, Ragas AMJ, Reijders L (2003) Evaluating uncertainty in environmental life cycle assessment. A case study comparing two insulation options for a Dutch one family dwelling. Environ Sci Technol 37:2600–2608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Huijbregts MAJ, Rombouts LJA, Hellweg S, Frischknecht R, Hendriks J, van de Meent D, Ragas AJM, Reijnders L, Struijs J (2006) Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products? Environ Sci Technol 40:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huijbregts MAJ, Hellweg S, Hendriks HWM, Hungerbühler K, Hendriks AJ (2010) Cumulative energy demand as predictor for the environmental burden of commodity production. Environ Sci Technol 44:2189–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ingraffea AR, Wells MT, Santoro RL, Shonkoff SBC (2014) Assessment and risk analysis of casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, 2000–2012. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:10955–10960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. IPPC Working Group I (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Iribarren D, Hospido A, Moreira MT, Feijoo G (2010) Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers. Environ Sci Policy. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2010.05.003Google Scholar
  85. Jansen B, Thollier K (2006) Bottom-up life cycle assessment of product consumption in Belgium. J Ind Ecol 10(3):41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jaramillo P, Samaras C, Wakeley H, Meisterling K (2009) Greenhouse gas implications of using coal for transportation: life cycle assessment of coal-to-liquids, plug-in hybrids, and hydrogen pathways. Energ Policy 37:2689–2695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Johnson RW (2004) The effect of blowing agent choice on energy use and global warming impact of refrigerator. Int J Refrig 27:794–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Johnson E (2008) Disagreement over carbon footprints: a comparison of electric and LPG forklifts. Energ Policy 36:1569–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jorquera O, Kiperstock A, Sales EA, Embirucu M, Ghirardi ML (2010) Comparative energy life cycle-analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors. Bioresour Technol 101:1406–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jury C, Benetto E, Koster D, Schmitt B, Welfring J (2010) Life cycle assessment of biogas production by monofermentation of energy crops and injection into the natural gas grid. Biomass Bioenergy 34:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kakudate K, Kajikawa Y, Adachi Y, Suzuki T (2002) Calculation model of CO2 emissions for Japanese passenger cars. Int J Life Cycle Assess 7:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kendall A, Chang B, Sharpe B (2009) Accounting for time-dependent effects in biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas emissions calculations. Environ Sci Technol 43:7142–7147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Khoo HH, Tan RBH, Chng KWL (2010) Environmental impacts of conventional plastic and bio-based carrier bags. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kim S, Dale BE (2008) Energy and greenhouse gas profiles of polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain: a life cycle perspective. Environ Sci Technol 42:7690–7695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kleijn R, van der Voet E, Udo de Haes HA (2008) The need for combining IEA and IE tools: the potential effects of a global ban on PVC on climate change. Ecol Econ 65:266–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kloverpris JH, Baltzer K, Nielsen PH (2010) Life cycle inventory modeling of land use induced by crop consumption. Part 2: example of wheat consumption in Brazil, China, Denmark and the USA. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:90–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Koellner T, de Baan L (2013) UNEP-SETAC guideline on global land use impact assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services in LCA. Int J Life Cycl Assess 18:1188–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kofoworola OF, Gheewala SH (2008) Environmental life cycle assessment of a commercial office building in Thailand. Int J Life Cycle Assess 13:498–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kurdikar D, Fourner L, Slate SC, Pater M, Gruys KJ, Gerngross TU, Coulon R (2000) Greenhouse gas profile of a plastic material from a genetically modified plant. J Ind Ecol 4(3):107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kushnir D, Sanden BA (2008) Energy requirements of carbon nanoparticle production. J Ind Ecol 12:360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lankey RL, McMichael FC (2000) Life-cycle methods for comparing primary and rechargeable batteries. Environ Sci Technol 34:2299–2304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Laurent A, Olsen SI, Hauschild MZ (2010) Carbon footprint as environmental performance indicator for the manufacturing industry. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59:37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lave L, McLean H, Hendrickson C, Lankey R (2000) Life-cycle analysis of alternative fuel/propulsion technologies. Environ Sci Technol 34:3598–3605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lee DS, Pitari G, Grewe V, Gierens K, Penner JE, Petzold A, Prather MJ, Schumann U, Bais A, Berntsen T, Iachetti D, Lim LL, Sausen R (2010a) Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: aviation. Atmos Environ 44:4678–4734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lee J, An S, Cha K, Hur T (2010b) Life cycle environmental and economic analyses of a hydrogen station with wind energy. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:2213–2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lenzen M (2008) Double counting in life cycle calculations. J Ind Ecol 12:583–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lifset R, Anes R (2009) The indirect effects of industrial ecology. J Ind Ecol 13:347–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lund H, Mathiesen BV, Christensen P, Schmidt JH (2010) Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:260–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Luz SM, Caldeira-Pires A, Ferrao PMC (2010) Environmental benefits of substituting talc by sugarcane bagasse fibers as reinforcement in polypropylene composites: ecodesign and LCA strategy for automotive components. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:1135–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Markandya A, Armstrong BG, Hales S, Chiabai A, Criqui P, Mima S, Tonne C, Wilkinson P (2009) Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low carbon electricity generation. Lancet 374:2006–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Martinez E, Sanz F, Pellegrini S, Jimenez E, Blanco J (2009) Life cycle assessment of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. Renew Energy 34:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. McConnell JR, Edwards R, Kok GL, Flanner MG, Zender CS, Salzman ES, Banta JR, Pasteris DR, Carter MM, Kahl JDW (2007) 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing. Science 317:1381–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Meyer DE, Curran MA, Gonzalez MA (2009) An examination of existing data for the industrial manufacture and use of nanocomponents and their role in life cycle impact of nanoproducts. Environ Sci Technol 43:1256–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ming J, Xiao C, Cachier H, Qin D, Qin X, Li Z, Pu J (2009) Black carbon (BC) in the snow and glaciers in west China and its potential effects on albedo. Atmos Res 92:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mohr N, Meijer A, Huijbregts MAJ, Reijnders L (2009) Environmental impact of thin-film GaInP/GaAs and multicrystalline silicon solar modules produces with solar energy. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14:225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Munoz I, Campra F, Fernandez-Alba AR (2010) Including CO2-emission equivalence of changes in land surface albedo in life cycle assessment. Methodology and case study on greenhouse agriculture. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:672–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Myrhe G, Shindell D, Bréon F, Fuglestvedt J, Huang J, Koch D, Lamarque J, Lee D, Mendoza B, Nakajima T, Robock A, Stephens G, Takemura T, Zhang H (2013) Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. In: Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fifth assessment report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Nakamura S, Kondo Y (2006) Hybrid LCC of appliances with different energy efficiencies. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nakinawa C, Graedel TE (2002) Life cycle and matrix analyses for re-refined oil in Japan. Int J Life Cycle Assess 7:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Narita N, Nakahara Y, Morimoto M, Aoki R, Suda S (2004) Current LCA database development in Japan – results of the LCA project. Int J Life Cycle Assess 9:355–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Nishioka Y, Levy JI, Norris GA (2006) Integrating air pollution, climate change, and economics in a risk based life-cycle analysis. A case study of residential insulation. J Hum Ecol Risk Assess 12:552–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Nugent D, Sovakool BK (2014) Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy: a critical meta-survey. Energy Policy 65:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ortiz O, Castells F, Sonnemann G (2010) Operational energy in the life cycle of residential dwellings: the experience of Spain and Colombia. Appl Energy 87:673–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Perez-Ramirez J, Kapteijn F, Schöffel K, Moulijn JA (2003) Formation and control of N2O in nitric acid production. Where do we stand today? Appl Catal B Environ 44:117–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Petron G, Frost G, Miller BR, Hirsch AI (2012) Hydrocarbon emissions characterization in the Colorado Front Range: a pilot study. J Geophys Res 117, D04304Google Scholar
  126. Pottimg J, Hauschild M (2005) Background for spatial differentiation in LCA impact assessment – the EDIP2003 methodology. Danish Ministry of the Environment.
  127. Rebitzer G, Ekvall T, Frischknecht R, Hunkeler D, Norris G, Rydberg T, Suh S, Schmidt W, Pennington DW, Weidema B (2004) Life cycle assessment. Part I: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and applications. Environ Int 30:701–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rehbitzer G, Buxmann K (2005) The role and implementation of LCA within life cycle management at Alcan. J Cleaner Prod 13:1327–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rehr AP, Small MJ, Matthews HS, Hendrickson CT (2010) Economic sources and spatial distribution of airborne chromium risks in the US. Environ Sci Technol 44:2131–2137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Reijnders L (2006) Is increased energy utilization linked to greater cultural complexity? Energy utilization by Australian aboriginals and traditional swidden agriculturalists. Environ Sci 3:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Reijnders L (2009a) Fuels for the future. J Integr Environ Sci 6:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reijnders L (2009b) Are forestation, biochar and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effect of burning fossil fuels. Energy Policy 37:2839–2841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Reijnders L (2010) Transport biofuel yields from food and lignocellulosic C4 crops. Biomass Bioenergy 34:152–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Reijnders L (2013) Lipid-based liquid biofuels from autotrophic microalgae: energetic and environmental performance. WIREs Energy Environ 2:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reijnders L, Huijbregts MAJ (2003) Choices in calculating life cycle emissions of carbon containing gases associated with forest derived biofuels. J Cleaner Prod 11:527–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Reijnders L, Huijbregts MAJ (2009) Biofuels for road transport. A seed to wheel perspective. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  137. Reijnders L, Soret S (2003) Quantification of the environmental impact of different dietary protein choices. Am J Clin Nutr 78:664S–668SGoogle Scholar
  138. Röös E, Sundberg C, Hansson P (2010) Uncertainties in the carbon footprint of food products: a case study on table potatoes. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rossello-Batle B, Moia A, Cladera A, Martinez V (2010) The energy use, CO2 emissions and waste throughout the life cycle of a sample of hotels in the Balearic Islands. Energy Build 42:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rydh CJ, Karlström M (2002) Life cycle inventory of recycling portable nickel-cadmium batteries. Resour Conserv Recycl 34:289–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sanden B, Kalström M (2007) Positive and negative feedback in consequential life cycle assessment. J Cleaner Prod 15:1469–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Saner D, Juraske R, Kubert M, Blum P, Hellweg S, Bayer P (2010) Is it only CO2 that matters? A life cycle perspective on shallow geothermal systems. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 14:1798–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sann TE, Palanisamy K, Nazrain M, Ani FN (2006) Study of carbon dioxide emission during combustion of biodiesel. In: International conference on energy and environment 2006, Kajang, pp 65–70Google Scholar
  144. Sathre R, O’Connor JO (2010) Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution. Environ Sci Policy 13:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sayagh S, Ventura A, Hoang T, Francois D, Jullien A (2009) Sensitivity of the LCA allocation procedure for BFS recycled into pavement structures. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:348–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Schipper L, Grubb M (2000) On the rebound? Feedback between energy intensities and energy uses in IEA countries. Energy Policy 28:367–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Schmidt H (2009) Carbon footprinting, labelling and life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 14:S6–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Schöpp W, Potting J, Hauschild M, Blok K (1998) Site-dependent life cycle impact assessment of acidification. J Ind Ecol 8(2):63–87Google Scholar
  149. Searchinger T, Heimlich R, Houghton RA, Dong F, Elobeid A, Fabiosa J, Tokgoz S, Hayes D, Yu T (2008) Use of US croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land use change. Science 319:1238–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sekiya A, Omamoto S (2010) Evaluation of carbon dioxide equivalent values for greenhouse gases: CEWN as a new indicator replacing GWP. J Fluorine Chem 131:384–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Song J, Lee K (2010) Development of a low carbon product design system based on embedded GHG emissions. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:547–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Spatari S, Bagley DM, McLean HL (2010) Life cycle evaluation of emerging lignocellulosic ethanol conversion technologies. Bioresour Technol 101:654–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Spielman M, Althaus H (2007) Can a prolonged use of a passenger car reduce environmental burdens? Life cycle analysis of Swiss passenger cars. J Cleaner Prod 15:1122–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stern N (2006) Stern review on the economics of climate change. HM Treasury, London.
  155. Tabone MD, Gregg JJ, Beckman EJ, Landis AE (2010) Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers. Environ Sci Technol 44:82-64–82-69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Thiesen J, Christensen TS, Kristensen TC, Andersen RD, Brunoe B, Gregersen TK, Thrane M, Weidema BP (2008) Rebound effect of price differences. Int J Life Cycle Assess 13:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tukker A, Eder P, Duh S (2006) Environmental impact of products. J Ind Ecol 10(3):183–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Upham P, Dendier L, Bleda M (2010) Carbon labeling of grocery products: public perceptions and potential emissions reductions. J Cleaner Prod 19:348–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. van der Velden NM, Patel MK, Vogtländer JG (2014) LCA benchmarking study on textiles made of cotton, polyester, nylon, acryl or elastane. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19:331–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Verones F, Pfister S, Hellweg S (2013) Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA. Environ Sci Technol 47:9799–9807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Walmsley JD, Godbold DL (2010) Stump harvesting for bioenergy – a review of the environmental impacts. Forestry 83:17–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Weber CL, Matthews HS (2008) Quantifying the global and distributional aspects of the American household carbon footprint. Ecol Econ 66:379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Weber CL, Jaramillo P, Marriott J, Samaras C (2010) Life cycle assessment and grid electricity; what do we know and what can we know. Environ Sci Technol 44:1895–1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Weiss M, Haufe J, Carus M, Brandao M, Bringezu S, Hermann B, Patel MK (2012) A review of environmental impacts of biobased materials. J Ind Ecol 16:S169–S181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wernet G, Conradt S, Isenring HP, Jimenez-Gonzales C, Hungerbühler K (2010) Life cycle assessment of fine chemical production: a case study of pharmaceutical synthesis. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:294–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Weston RE (1996) Possible greenhouse effects of tetrafluoromethane and carbon dioxide emitted from aluminum production. Atmos Environ 30:2901–2910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Williams ED, Weber CL, Hawkins TR (2009) Hybrid framework for managing uncertainty in life cycle inventories. J Ind Ecol 13:928–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wu P, Xia B, Zhao X (2014) The importance of use and end-of -life phases to the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of concrete – a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 37:360–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yung WKC, Chan HK, Choi ACK, Yue TM, Mahzar MI (2008) An environmental assessment framework with respect to the requirements of energy using products directive. Proc Inst Mech Eng 222B:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Zhang Y, McKechnie J, Cormier D, Lyng R, Mabee W, Ogino A, Maclean HR (2010) Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 44:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem DynamicsUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations