Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
In 1973, Jones et al. described, in the American medical literature, a constellation of features in children born to alcoholic mothers, now known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In 1996, the Institute of Medicine further defined criteria of FAS and proposed two new terms, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBDs), to include structural CNS and cognitive abnormalities in children in whom fetal exposure to alcohol has been confirmed.
KeywordsDepression Nicotine Caffeine Glucocorticoid Hypoglycemia
- Halmesmäki, E., Autti, I., Granstrom, M. L., et al. (1986). Alpha-fetoprotein, human placental lactogen, and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein in pregnant women who drink: Relation to fetal alcohol syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 155, 598–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar