Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

Living Edition
| Editors: Karen E. Nelson

Cloud and Atmosphere Metagenomics

  • Tina Santl-Temkiv
  • Kai Finster
  • Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6418-1_98-4

Synonyms

Definition

Previously only considered a dispersal route for microorganisms, the atmosphere has recently been added to a long list of environments on Earth that could serve as bacterial habitats. Diverse bacterial communities are present in the atmosphere up to high altitudes as well as in cloud and fog droplets. By entering the droplets, airborne bacteria gain access to a liquid environment and diverse organic compounds and potentially affect atmospheric chemistry and physics.

Introduction

The atmosphere is the most important conduit for bacterial dispersal. The mean global emissions from terrestrial surfaces amount to between 2.0*1016 and 5.6*1016 CFU per second (Burrows et al. 2009b). Emissions from marine surfaces are considered significantly lower. Marine bacteria get aerosolized through bubble bursting, whereas wind and temperature are proposed to be the main factors influencing uplift of bacteria from terrestrial surfaces...

Keywords

Bacillus Oligomer Biodegradation Pseudomonas Carotenoid 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Ahern HE, Walsh KA, Hill TCJ, et al. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from Hebridean cloud and rain water produce biosurfactants but do not cause ice nucleation. Biogeosci. 2007;4(1):115–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato P, Demeer F, Melaouhi A, et al. A fate for organic acids, formaldehyde and methanol in cloud water: their biotransformation by micro-organisms. Atmos Chem Phys. 2007;7(15):4159–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariya PA, Nepotchatykh O, Ignatovaand O, et al. Microbiological degradation of atmospheric organic compounds. Geophys Res Lett. 2002;29(22):2077–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowers RM, Lauber CL, Wiedinmyer C, et al. Characterization of airborne microbial communities at a high-elevation site and their potential to act as atmospheric ice nuclei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75(15):5121–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowers RM, McLetchie S, Knight R, et al. Spatial variability in airborne bacterial communities across land-use types and their relationship to the bacterial communities of potential source environments. ISME J. 2011;5:601–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowers RM, McCubbin IB, Hallar AG, et al. Seasonal variability in airborne bacterial communities at a high-elevation site. Atmos Environ. 2012;50:41–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burrows SM, Elbert W, Lawrence MG, et al. Bacteria in the global atmosphere – part 1: review and synthesis of literature data for different ecosystems. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss. 2009a;9:10777–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burrows SM, Butler T, Jöckel P, et al. Bacteria in the global atmosphere – part 2: modeling of emissions and transport between different ecosystems. Atmos Chem Phys. 2009b;9:9281–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christner BC, Morris CE, Foreman CM. Ubiquity of biological ice nucleators in snowfall. Science. 2008;319(5867):1214.Google Scholar
  10. Delort AM, Vaïtilingom M, Amato P, et al. A short overview of the microbial population in clouds: potential roles in atmospheric chemistry and nucleation processes. Atmos Res. 2010;98(2–4):249–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fahlgren C, Hagström Å, Nilsson D, et al. Annual variations in the diversity, viability, and origin of airborne bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76(9):3015–25.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill KA, Shepson PB, Galbavy ES, et al. Processing of atmospheric nitrogen by clouds above a forest environment. J Geophys Res. 2007;112(D11):1–16.Google Scholar
  13. Kourtev PS, Hill KA, Shepson PB, et al. Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community. Atmos Environ. 2011;45:5399–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marinoni A, Laj P, Sellegri K, et al. Cloud chemistry at the Puy de Dome: variability and relationships with environmental factors. Atmos Chem Phys. 2004;4:715–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maron P-A, Lejon DPH, Carvalho E, et al. Assessing genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities by DNA fingerprinting and 16S rDNA clone library. Atmos Environ. 2005;39:3687–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Möhler O, DeMott PJ, Vali G, et al. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics. Biogeosci. 2007;4:1059–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morris CE, Sands DC, Vinatzer BA, et al. The life history of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is linked to the water cycle. ISME J. 2008;2:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Radosevich JL, Wilson WJ, Shinn JH, et al. Development of a high-volume aerosol collection system for the identification of air-borne micro-organisms. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2002;34:162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Šantl-Temkiv T, Finster K, Hansen BM, et al. The microbial diversity of a storm cloud as assessed by hailstones. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012;81(3):684–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sattler B, Puxbaum H, Psenner R. Bacterial growth in supercooled cloud droplets. Geophys Res Lett. 2001;28(2):239–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vaïtilingom M, Charbouillot T, Deguillaume L, et al. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss. 2011;11:4881–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zweifel UL, Hagström Å, Holmfeldt K, et al. High bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity above the atmospheric boundary layer. Aerobiologia. 2012;28(4):481–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tina Santl-Temkiv
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kai Finster
    • 2
  • Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyAarhus UniversityAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Bioscience, Microbiology SectionAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceAarhus UniversityRoskildeDenmark