Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

Living Edition
| Editors: Karen E. Nelson

Role of Microorganisms in Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Zoya B. Kurago
  • Aroonwan Lam-ubol
  • Catherine M. Flaitz
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6418-1_61-11

Introduction and Epidemiology

Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that is documented worldwide due in part to the common use of tobacco and alcohol. Globally, approximately 400,000 cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate of over 223,000 (Ferlay et al. 2010). Furthermore, this group of head and neck cancers ranks among the top ten most common malignancies worldwide (Ferlay et al. 2010). According to 2012 US statistics, an estimated 40,000 new cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx will be diagnosed, and over 90 % of the cases will be SCC (Siegel et al. 2012). These cancers are estimated to represent over 2% of all malignancies in 2012, and approximately 7,850 individuals will die of this disease (Siegel et al. 2012). Of importance, there are significant changes in the incidence of OSCC depending upon the location. Alarming annual increases of 5% are observed in the oropharynx, in contrast to a decrease in oral cavity...


Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oral Cavity Cancer Papillary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patient Innate Immune System Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ahn K, Chen CY, Hayes RB. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:399–404.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ang KK, Sturgis EM. Human papillomavirus as a marker of the natural history and response to therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2012;22:128–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bebek G, Bennett KL, Funchain P, et al. Microbiomic subprofiles and MDR1 promoter methylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21(7):1557–65.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beutler B, Goodnow CC. How host defense is encoded in the mammalian genome. Mamm Genome. 2011;22(1–2):1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown LM, Check DP, Devesa SS. Oropharyngeal cancer incidence trends: diminishing racial disparities. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:753–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, et al. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(32):4294–301.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR. Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology. 2004;324(1):17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans MF, Matthews A, Kandil D. Discrimination of ‘driver’ and ‘passenger’ HPV in tonsillar carcinomas by the polymerase chain reaction, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5(4):344–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gillison ML. Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection. Curr Opin Oncol. 2009;21:439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hashibe M, Brennan P, Chuang S-C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(2):541–50.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herrero R, Castellsague X, Pawlita M, Lissowska J, et al. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(23):1772–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hooper SJ, Crean SJ, Fardy MA, et al. A molecular analysis of the bacteria present within oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1651–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hooper SJ, Wilson MJ, Crean SJ. Exploring the link between microorganisms and oral cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Head Neck. 2009;31(9):1228–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 populations). Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 2012. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/, based on Nov 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website.Google Scholar
  16. Joly S, Compton LM, Pujol C, et al. Loss of human beta-defensin 1, 2, and 3 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24(5):353–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kjaer SK, Sigurdsson K, Iversen OE, et al. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2(10):868–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Klingelhutz AJ, Roman A. Cellular transformation by human papillomaviruses: lessons learned by comparing high- and low-risk viruses [Minireview]. Virology. 2012;424:77–98.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurago ZB, Lam-ubol A, Stetsenko A, et al. Lipopolysaccharide-squamous cell carcinoma-monocyte interactions induce cancer-supporting factors leading to rapid STAT3 activation. Head Neck Pathol. 2008;2:1–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lam-ubol A, Hopkin D, Letuchy EM, Kurago ZB. Squamous carcinoma cells influence monocyte phenotype and suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha in monocytes. Inflammation. 2010;33(4):207–23.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mager DL, Haffajee AD, Devlin PM, et al. The salivary microbiota as a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer: a descriptive, non-randomized study of cancer-free and oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects. J Transl Med. 2005;3(1):27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marklund L, Hammarstedt L. Impact of HPV in oropharyngeal cancer. J Oncol. 2011;2011:509036.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McCullough M, Jaber M, Barrett AW, et al. Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Oncol. 2002;38:391–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moody CA, Laimins LA. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins: pathways to transformation. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10(8):550–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nagy KN, Sonkodi I, Szoke I, et al. The microflora associated with human oral carcinomas. Oral Oncol. 1998;34:304–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmeron J, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009;374:301–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pushalkar S, Mane SP, Ji X, et al. Microbial diversity in saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;61(3):269–77.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Russell JO, Hoschar AP, Scharpf J. Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a clinicopathologic series. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:557–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sakamoto H, Sasaki J, Nord CE. Association between bacterial colonization on the tumor, bacterial translocation to the cervical lymph nodes and subsequent postoperative infection in patients with oral cancer. Clin Microbiol Infect. 1999;5:612–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sasaki M, Yamaura C, Ohara-Nemoto Y, et al. Streptococcus anginosus infection in oral cancer and its infection route. Oral Dis. 2005;11:151–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shiga K, Tateda M, Saijo S, et al. Presence of Streptococcus infection in extra-oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its implication in carcinogenesis. Oncol Rep. 2001;8:245–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:10–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stanley MA. Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies. J Gen Virol. 2012;93(pt 4):681–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S. Molecular biology of papillomaviruses. In: Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S, editors. Papillomavirus infections in human pathology. Chichester: Wiley; 2000. p. 11–52.Google Scholar
  35. Syrjänen S, Lodi G, von Bultzingslowen I, et al. Human papillomaviruses in oral carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review. Oral Dis. 2011;17 Suppl 1:58–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tezal M, Sullivan MA, Reid ME, et al. Chronic periodontitis and the risk of tongue cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(5):450–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tezal M, Scannapieco FA, Wactawski-Wende J, et al. Local inflammation and human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138(7):669–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zoya B. Kurago
    • 1
  • Aroonwan Lam-ubol
    • 2
  • Catherine M. Flaitz
    • 3
  1. 1.Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dental MedicineGeorgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral DiagnosisSrinakharinwirot UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, Department of Diagnostic and Biomedical SciencesThe University of Texas School of Dentistry at HoustonHoustonUSA