Role of Microorganisms in Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Introduction and Epidemiology
Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that is documented worldwide due in part to the common use of tobacco and alcohol. Globally, approximately 400,000 cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate of over 223,000 (Ferlay et al. 2010). Furthermore, this group of head and neck cancers ranks among the top ten most common malignancies worldwide (Ferlay et al. 2010). According to 2012 US statistics, an estimated 40,000 new cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx will be diagnosed, and over 90 % of the cases will be SCC (Siegel et al. 2012). These cancers are estimated to represent over 2% of all malignancies in 2012, and approximately 7,850 individuals will die of this disease (Siegel et al. 2012). Of importance, there are significant changes in the incidence of OSCC depending upon the location. Alarming annual increases of 5% are observed in the oropharynx, in contrast to a decrease in oral cavity...
KeywordsAdenosine Hematoxylin Eosin Candida Nucleoside
- Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmeron J, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009;374:301–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S. Molecular biology of papillomaviruses. In: Syrjänen K, Syrjänen S, editors. Papillomavirus infections in human pathology. Chichester: Wiley; 2000. p. 11–52.Google Scholar