β-lactam resistance refers to the intrinsic or acquired ability of bacteria to avoid the action of β-lactam antibiotics. It is important to note that resistance in the clinical setting may not be predictable by in vitro susceptibility testing. In some cases, susceptible bacteria may be located in areas that are not accessible to antibiotics, or the presence of biofilms may restrict antibiotic access to susceptible strains, so strains may behave as if they are resistant. Thus, when using an antimicrobial agent, the in vitro susceptibility and metabolic state of the bacterial strain, as well as the attainable drug concentrations at the infection site, must also be considered.
KeywordsEfflux Pump Small Multidrug Resistance Catalytic Serine Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Porin Expression
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