Ocean Gyres, Metagenomics of
Oligotrophic open ocean considered in this chapter refers to euphotic zone approximately 0–200 m deep, away from coasts, and characterized by low concentrations of biologically available inorganic nutrients. These waters are mostly contained in the five oceanic gyres (North and South Subtropical Pacific, North and South Subtropical Atlantic, Indian Gyre) and also Mediterranean Sea.
The open ocean is one of the largest habitats on Earth. Microorganisms in the surface waters of the oceans control biogeochemical cycling of elements and the exchange of gases with the atmosphere, including greenhouse gases. Most of the microorganisms in the open ocean have not been cultivated, preventing study of their ecology by traditional methods. Metagenomics has provided a new tool for examining microbial communities in nature. It is now possible to study uncultivated microbial communities in the context of the chemical, physical, and biological variables that define the open...
KeywordsChlorophyll Arsenic Phytoplankton Photosynthesis NADPH
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