Encyclopedia of Metagenomics

Living Edition
| Editors: Karen E. Nelson

Plasmid Metagenomes in Activated Sludge

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6418-1_244-1


Plasmid metagenomes in activated sludge refers to all the genetic material on plasmids in the microorganisms present in the activated sludge.


Activated sludge (AS) is a high-efficiency and low-cost biological wastewater treatment process which is being widely used to remove pollutants in wastewater. Plasmids often play important roles in shaping the microbial characteristics of activated sludge, such as the antibiotic resistance, which is just a hotspot that many researchers have already studied on (Yang et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2011) and contribute to multiple important functions of activated sludge, such as degradation of refractory organic pollutants and transformation of heavy metals. Additionally, in the system of AS, plasmids always have high levels of genetic diversity and composition (Schluter et al. 2008). Therefore, the analysis of plasmids has a significance in characterizing microbial populations in activated sludge and understanding the...


Activate Sludge Lateral Gene Transfer Sludge Floc Important Ecological Function Activate Sludge Floc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Barkay T, Smets BF. Horizontal gene flow in microbial communities. ASM News. 2005;71:412–9.Google Scholar
  2. Kav AB, Sasson G, Jami E, et al. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5452–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lederberg J. Cell genetics and hereditary symbiosis. Physiol Rev. 1952;32:403–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature. 2000;405:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sangwan N, Lata P, Dwivedi V, et al. Comparative metagenomic analysis of soil microbial communities across three hexachlorocyclohexane contamination levels. PloS ONE. 2012;7:e46219.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Schluter A, Krause L, Szczepanowski R, et al. Genetic diversity and composition of a plasmid metagenome from a wastewater treatment plant. J Biotechnol. 2008;136:65–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sentchilo V, Mayer AP, Guy L, et al. Community-wide plasmid gene mobilization and selection. ISME J. 2013;7:1173–1186.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Smillie C, Garcillan-Barcia MP, Francia MV, et al. Mobility of plasmids. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev MMBR. 2010;74:434–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Szczepanowski R, Bekel T, Goesmann A, et al. Insight into the plasmid metagenome of wastewater treatment plant bacteria showing reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs analysed by the 454-pyrosequencing technology. J Biotechnol. 2008;136:54–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Yang Y, Zhang T, Zhang XX, et al. Quantification and characterization of beta-lactam resistance genes in 15 sewage treatment plants from East Asia and North America. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:1351–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zhang T, Zhang XX, Ye L. Plasmid metagenome reveals high levels of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in activated sludge. PloS ONE. 2011;6:e26041.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Zhang T, Shao MF, Ye L. 454 Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial diversity of activated sludge from 14 sewage treatment plants. ISME J. 2012;6:1137–47.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Environmental Biotechnology LabThe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong