Sustainable Food Production

2013 Edition
| Editors: Paul Christou, Roxana Savin, Barry A. Costa-Pierce, Ignacy Misztal, C. Bruce A. Whitelaw

Aquapod Systems for Sustainable Ocean Aquaculture

  • Stephen H. PageEmail author
Reference work entry

Definition of the Subject

Open ocean aquaculture is not well defined by the industry, but in general refers to culture of marine fish, invertebrates, or algae in exposed ocean locations. Open ocean aquaculture is contrasted to near-shore marine aquaculture in that it occurs in areas removed spatially from land, typically by 1 km or more; deep water, generally deeper than 20 m; and exposure to wind, waves, and ocean currents without shelter from the mainland or islands. The subject of this entry is principally the design and engineering of containment systems suited for open ocean aquaculture.


Near-shore finfish aquaculture worldwide is challenged and constrained by resource user competition, environmental carrying capacity of near-shore environments, and, in most cold-water regions of the world essentially a monoculture of Atlantic salmon. Expansion of marine aquaculture in the next 20 years will happen substantially in offshore, exposed open ocean areas, with a...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ocean Farm Technologies, Inc.MorrillUSA