Sustainable Food Production

2013 Edition
| Editors: Paul Christou, Roxana Savin, Barry A. Costa-Pierce, Ignacy Misztal, C. Bruce A. Whitelaw

Biomass Crops for Biofuels and Bio-based Products

  • Elizabeth E. Hood
  • Keat (Thomas) Teoh
  • Shivakumar P. Devaiah
  • Deborah Vicuna Requesens
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5797-8_170

Definition of the Subject and Its Importance

Humans currently consume at least 25% more raw materials every year than are replaced through biological growth [150]. In order to sustain quality of life and have adequate environmental resources, those resources must be balanced and renewable. Pressure on those resources has never been greater with the world population nearing seven billion people, and estimated to plateau at 10.5 billion by 2050. That number represents 35–40% more people than currently inhabit the earth.

Sustainable, renewable resources are those derived from biological sources, primarily plant biomass . The underlying principal is that the materials can be reproduced with minimal inputs using energy from the sun. Biomass is thus derived directly or indirectly from original sources that grow and reproduce biologically.

Biomass for biofuels and bio-based products can include many sources of material. In general, biomass includes any biological materials whether of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Perlack R et al (2005) Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supplyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kadam K, McMillan J (2003) Availability of corn stover as a sustainable feedstock fo bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 88:17–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Green S (2011) Sustainability: soil. In: Hood E, Nelson P, Powell R (eds) Plant biomass conversion. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrews S (2006) Crop residue removal for biomass energy production: effects on soils and recommendations. USDA – National Resource Conservation Service, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hettenhaus J (2011) Agricultural crop residues for biomass conversion. In: Hood E, Nelson P, Powell R (eds) Plant biomass conversion. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang M, Saricks C, Santini D (1999) Effects of fuels ethanol use on fuel-cycle energy and greenhous gas emissions. Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lawrence C, Walbot V (2007) Translational genomics for bioenergy production from fuelstock grasses: maize as the model species. Plant Cell 19:2091–2094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Osborne C, Beerling D (2006) Nature’s green revolution: the remarkable evolutionary rise of C$ plants. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 361:173–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Makino A et al (2003) Differences between maize and rice in N-use efficiency for photosynthesis and protein allocation. Plant Cell Physiol 44:952–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raines C (2006) Transgenic approaches to manipulate the environmental responses of the C3 carbon fixation cycle. Plant Cell Environ 29:331–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Oliveira M, Vaughan B (2005) Ethanol as fuel: energy, carbon dioxide balances, and ecological footprint. Bioscience 55(7):593–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bennett AS, Anex RP (2009) Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest. Bioresour Technol 100(4):1595–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reddy BVS, Kumar AA, Ramesh S (2007) Sweet sorghum: a water saving bio-energy crop. In: Linkage between energy and water management for agriculture in developing countries, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gnansounou E, Dauriat A, Wyman CE (2005) Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China. Bioresour Technol 96(9):985–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Renouf M, Wegener M, Nielsen L (2008) An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation. Biomass Bioenergy 32:1144–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sharpe P (1998) Sugar cane: past and present. Southern Illinois University, CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McIlroy R (1963) An introduction to tropical cash crops. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, p 163Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Purseglove J (1979) Tropical crops: monocotyledons. Longman, London, p 607Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldemberg J, Coelho S, Guardabassi P (2008) The sustainability of ethanol production from sugar cane. Energy Policy 36:2086–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Macedo IC, Seabra JEA, Silva JEAR (2008) Green house gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: the 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020. Biomass Bioenergy 32(7):582–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dong z et al (1994) A nitrogen-fixing endophyte of sugarcane stems (a new role for the apoplast). Plant Physiol 105:1139–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wrigley G (1982) Tropical agriculture: the development of production, Fourthth edn. Longman, New York, p 496Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim S, Dale B (2004) Global potential bioethanol production from waste crops and crop residues. Biomass Bioenergy 26(4):361–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Destefano S et al (2004) Differentiation of ‘Xanthomonas’ species pathogenic to sugarcane by PCR-RFLP analysis. Eur J Plant Pathol 109:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laopaiboon P et al (2010) Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production. Bioresour Technol 101:1036–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reijnders L, Huijbregts M (2009) Transport biofuels: a seed to wheel perspective. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Banerjee R, Pandey A (2002) Bioindustrial application of sugarcane bagasse: a technology perspective. Int Sugar J 1:3–7Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Beeharry RP (2001) Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems. Biomass Bioenergy 20(5):361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sun J et al (2004) Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse. Polym Degrad Stab 84:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pessoa J, de Manchilha I, Sato S (1997) Evaluation of sugarcane hemicellulose hydroyzate for cultivation of yeasts and filamentous fungi. J Indian Microbiol Biotechnol 18:360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Halling P, Simms-Borre P (2008) Overview of lignocellulosic feedstock conversion into ethanol – focus on sugarcane bagasse. Int Sugar J 110:191–194Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rooney WL et al (2007) Designing sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy feedstock. Biofuels Bioproducts Biorefining (Biofpr) 1(2):147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Billa E et al (1997) Structure and composition of sweet sorghum stalk components. Ind Crops Prod 6(3–4):297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Almodares A, Mostafafi D (2006) Effects of planting date and time of nitrogen application of yield and sugar content of sweet sorghum. J Environ Biol 27:601–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grassi G, Tondi G, Helm P (2004) Small-sized commercial bioenergy technologies as an instument of rural development, in biomass and agriculture: sustainability, markets and policies. OECD Publication Service, Paris, pp 277–287Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hunter EL, Anderson IC (1997) Sweet sorghum. Hortic Rev 21:73–104Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Miller FR, McBee GG (1993) Genetics and management of physiological systems of sorghum for biomass production. Biomass Bioenergy 5(1):41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vermerris W et al (2009) Production of biofuel crops in florida: Sweet sorghum. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Belaychi L, Delmas M (1997) Sweet sorghum bagasse: a raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp. Effect of depithing. Ind Crops Prod 6:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Corredor D et al (2009) Evaluation and characterization of forage sorghum as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 158(1):164–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bryan W, Monroe G, Caussariel P (1985) Solid-phase fermentation and juice expression systems for sweet sorghum. Trans ASAE 28(1):268–274Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sipos B et al (2008) Sweet sorghum as feedstock for ethanol production: enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated bagasse. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 153:151–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Heaton E, Voigt T, Long SP (2004) A quantitative review comparing the yields of two candidate C4 perennial biomass crops in relation to nitrogen, temperature and water. Biomass Bioenergy 27(1):21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Finlay R (2004) Mycorrhizal fungi and thier multifunctional roles. Mycologist 18:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Beaty E, Engel J, Powell J (1978) Tiller development and growth in switchgrass. J Range Manage 31:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Monteith JL (1978) Reassessment of maximum growth rates for C3 and C4 crops. Exp Agric 14(01):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ney R, Schnoor J (2002) Incremental life cycle analysis: using uncertainty analysis to frame greenhouse gas balances from bioenergy systems for emission trading. Biomass Bioenergy 22:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hodkinson T, Renoize S, Chase M (1997) Systematics of Miscanthus. Aspects of Applied Biology 49:189–198Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Greef JM, Deuter M (1993) Syntaxonomy of Miscanthus × giganteus, vol 67. Blackwell, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Linde-Laursen I (1993) Cytogenetic analysis of Miscanthus ‘Giganteus’, an interspecific hybrid. Hereditas 119(3):297–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Surlock J (1999) Miscanthus – a review of the European experience with a novel energy crop. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak RidgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walsh M, McCarthy S (1998) Miscanthus handbook. In: Tenth European bioenergy conference, Wurzburg, 1998. CARMEN PublishersGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Clifton-Brown J, Long SP, Jorgensen U (2001) Miscanthus productivity. In: Jones MB, Walsh M (eds) Miscanthus for energy and fibre. James & James, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Naidu SL et al (2003) Cold tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus × giganteus: adaptation in amounts and sequence of C4 photosynthetic enzymes. Plant Physiol 132(3):1688–1697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Naidu SL, Long SP (2004) Potential mechanisms of low-temperature tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus × giganteus: an in vivo analysis. Planta 220(1):145–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Christian DG, Haase E (2001) Agronomy of Miscanthus. In: Jones MB, Walsh M (eds) Miscanthus for energy and fibre. James & James, London, pp 21–45Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lewandowski I et al (2000) Miscanthus: European experience with a novel energy crop. Biomass Bioenergy 19(4):209–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Clifton-Brown J et al (2002) Modelled Biomass production potential of Miscanthus and actual harvestable yield as influenced by harvest time. In: 12th European Biomass conference and exhibition, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Heaton EA, Dohleman FG, Long SP (2008) Meeting US biofuel goals with less land: the potential of Miscanthus. Glob Change Biol 14(9):2000–2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wikberg S (1990) The genus Miscanthus: a summary of available literature. Project Agro-fibre. University of Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Booth E, Batchelor S, Walker K (1996) An evaluation of the potential of fiber crops in Scotland. In: Ninth international conference on Jojoba and its uses and third international conference on new industrial crops and products, Catamarca, 1996Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Harvey J, Hutchens M (1994) Progress in commercial development of Miscanthus in England. In: Biomass for energy, environment, agriculture and industry – Proceedings of the eighth EC conference, Elsevier Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Visser P et al (2001) Utilization of Miscanthus. In: Jones M, Walsh M (eds) Miscanthus for energy and fibre. James & James, London, p 218Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jefferson P et al (2002) Performance or American native grass cultivars in the Canadaian prairie provinces. Native Plants J 3:24–33Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hitchcock AS, US Department of Agriculture (1935) Manual of the grasses of the United States. Government Printing Office, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McLaughlin S (1992) New switchgrass biofuels reserach program for the Southeast. In: Proceedings of the annual automotive technology development contractors’ coordination meeting, Dearborn, 1992Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Parrish DJ, Fike JH (2004) The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:423–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Porter CJ (1966) An analysis of varitation between upland and lowland switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L) in central Oklahoma. Ecology 47:980–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hopkins A et al (1996) Chromosome number and nuclear DNA content of several switchgrass populations. Crop Sci 36:1193–1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gunderson CA et al (2008) Exploring potential U.S. switchgrass production for lignocellulosic ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratoy, Oak RidgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jung G, Shaffer J, Stout W (1988) Switchgrass and bluestem responses to amendment on strongly acid soil. Agron J 80:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hanson J, Johnson H (2005) Germination of switchgrass under various temperature and pH regimes. Seed Technol 27(2):203–210Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stroup J et al (2003) Comparison of growth and performance in upland and lowland switchgrass types to water and nitrogen stress. Bioresour Technol 86:65–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Brejda J et al (1993) Dependence of 3 Nebraska sandhills warm-season grasses in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. J Range Manage 46:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnson N (1998) Responses of Salsola kali and Panicum virgatum to mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus and soil organic matter: implication for reclamation. J Appl Ecol 35:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hsu F, Nelson C (1986) Planting date effects on seedling development of perennial warm-season forage grasses II. Seedling Growth. Agron J 78:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hsu F, Nelson C, Matches A (1985) Temperature effects on germination of perrenial warm-season forage grasses. Crop Sci 25:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vogel K (2004) Switchgrass. In: Moser LE, Sollenberger L, Burson B (eds) Warm-season grasses. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cossar R, Baldwin B (2004) Establishment of switchgrass with sorghum-sudangrass. In: Third Eastern native grass symposium, Omnipress, Chapel Hill, 2004Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zarnstorff M (1993) Physioecological effects of cultural and pesticide management on no-till establishment of switchgrass and seed dormancy. Dissertation Abstract International. Science and EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McKenna J, Wolf D, Lentner M (1991) No-till warm-season grass establishment as affected by atrazine and carbofuran. Agron J 83:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wolf D et al (1989) No-till establishment of perennial, warm-season grasses for biomass production. Biomass 20:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brejda J (2000) Fertilization of native warm-seaon grasses. In: Anderson B, Moore K (eds) Native warm-season grasses: research trends and issues. Crop Science Society of America, Madison, pp 177–200Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hall KE, George JR, Riedl RR (1982) Herbage dry matter yields of switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass with N fertilization. Agron J 74(1):47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Clark F (1977) Internal cycling of 15nitrogen in shortgrass praire. Ecology 58:1322–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tin X et al (2006) Switchgrass as an alternate feedstock for power generation: integrated environmental, energy, and economic life-cycle analysis. Clean Technol Environ Policy 8(4):233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McLaughlin S et al (1999) Developing switchgrass as a bioenergy crop. In: Janick J (ed) Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sanderson MA et al (1996) Switchgrass as a sustainable bioenergy crop. Bioresour Technol 56(1):83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Thomason W et al (2004) Switchgrass response to harvest frequency and time and rate of applied nitrogen. J Plant Nutr 27:28Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schmer MR et al (2008) Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(2):464–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Comis D (2006) Switching to switchgrass makes sense. In: Agricultural research, USDA-ARSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Anderson B (2000) Use of warm-season grasses by grazing livestock. In: Anderson B, Moore K (eds) Native warm-season grasses: research trends and issues. Crop Science Society of America, Madison, pp 147–158Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Moore K et al (2004) Sequential grazing of cool- and warm-season pastures. Agron J 96:1103–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McLaughlin SB, Adams Kszos L (2005) Development of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a bioenergy feedstock in the United States. Biomass Bioenergy 28(6):515–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sanderson MA, Read JC, Reed RL (1999) Harvest management of switchgrass for biomass feedstock and forage production. Agron J 91(1):5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Entry JA, Watrud LS (1998) Potential remediation of 137Cs and90 Sr contaminated soil by accumulation in alamo switchgrass. Water Air Soil Pollut 104(3):339–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hohenstein W, Wright LL (1994) Biomass energy production in the United States: an overview. Biomass Bioenergy 6(3):161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fike JH et al (2006) Long-term yield potential of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. Biomass Bioenergy 30(3):198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Duffy M, Nanhou V (2002) Costs of producing switchgrass for biomass in Southern Iowa. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (eds) Trends in new crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vogel KP et al (2002) Switchgrass biomass production in the midwest USA: harvest and nitrogen management. Agron J 94(3):413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vogel K et al (2006) Switchgrass for biomass: farm-scale production practices affect feedstocck costs and quanitities in the Northern Great Plains. In: Eighth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, program abstracts, Nashville, 2006Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sanderson M et al (2004) Alternative uses of warm-season grasses. In: Moser L et al (eds) Warm-season (C4) grasses. ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Madison, pp 389–416Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Parikka M (2004) Global biomass fuel resources. Biomass Bioenergy 27(6):613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ragauskas AJ et al (2006) The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science 311(5760):484–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ruark G et al (2006) Perennial crops for bio-fuels and conservation. USDA Forest Service/UNL Faculty Publications, 2006, p. 18Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stettler R et al (1996) Biology of populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Researc Press, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tuskan G. Popular poplars. trees for many purposes. Available from: http://bioenergy.ornl.gov/main.aspx. Accessed November 28, 2010
  108. 108.
    Demchik M et al (2002) Hybrid poplars as an alternative crop. Natural Resources Special ReportGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Walsh M et al (2003) Bioenergy crop production in the United States. Potential quantities, land use changes, and economic impacts on the agricultural sector. Environ Resour Econ 24:313–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Amicheva BY, Johnston M, Rees KCJV (2010) Hybrid poplar growth in bioenergy production systems: biomass prediction with a simple process-based model (3PG). Biomass Bioenergy 34(5):687–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Labrecque M, Teodorescu TI (2003) High biomass yield achieved by Salix clones in SRIC following two 3-year coppice rotations on abandoned farmland in southern Quebec, Canada. Biomass Bioenergy 25(2):135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lattimore B et al (2009) Environmental factors in woodfuel production: opportunities, risks, and criteria and indicators for sustainable practices. Biomass Bioenergy 33(10):1321–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Perez-Verdin G et al (2003) Woody biomass availability for bioethanol conversion in Mississippi. Biomass Bioenergy 33:492–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pellis A, Laureysens I, Ceulemans R (2004) Growth and production of a short rotation coppice culture of poplar I. Clonal differences in leaf characteristics in relation to biomass production. Biomass Bioenergy 27(1):9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Goodrich M (2009) From the roots up, developing trees for sustainable biofuel. In: Michigan Tech News, 2009Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Reidy S (2006) Purdue University Researchers Study poplar trees as feedstock for cellulose ethanol. BioFuels Journal. http://www.biofuelsjournal.com/articles/Purdue_University_Researchers_Study_Poplar_Trees_as_Feedstock_for_Cellulose_Ethanol-37114.html. Accessed November 28, 2010
  117. 117.
    Huang H et al (2009) Effect of biomass species and plant size on cellulosic ethanol: a comparative process and economic analysis. Biomass Bioenergy 33(2):234–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Farrell A, Plevin R et al (2006) Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311(5760):506–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Davidson J (1993) Ecological aspects of Eucalyptus plantations. in regional expert consultation on eucalyptus. RAPA publication 1995Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Iglesias T, Wilstermann D (2009) Global Eucalyptus Map (v 1.2). In: GIT forestry consulting’s eucalyptologics: information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation worlwide, 2009Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Groenendaal G (1983) History of Eucalyptus in California. In: Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus, Sacramento, 1983. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Henter H (2005) Tree wars: the secret life of Eucalyptus. In Alumni. 2005, University of California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Whitesell C et al (1992) Short rotation management of eucalyptus: guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stricker J et al (2000) Short rotation woody crops for Florida. University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rockwood D et al (2008) Energy product options for Eucalyptus species grown as short rotation woody crops. Int J Mol Sci 9:1361–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Whitesell C, DeBell D, Schubert T (1988) Six-year growth of eucalyptusGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Luzar J (2007) The political ecology of a “forest transition”: Eucalyptus forestry in the Southern Peruvian. Ethnobot Res Appl 5:85–93Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pousajja R (1996) Eucalyptus plantations in Thailand. In: Kashio M, White K (eds) Reports submitted to the regional consultation on eucalyptusGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Song Y (1992) Utilization of Eucalyptus in China. Appita 45(6):382–383Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Steinbeck K, McAlpine R, May J (1972) Short rotation culture of sycamore: a status report. J Forest 70(4):210–213Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Skolmen R (1983) Growth and yield of some Eucalyptus of interest in California. In: Proceedings of a workshop on eucalyptus in California, Sacramento, 1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lull G (1908) A handbook for Eucalyptus planters, State Board of Forestry (ed), US Dept of Agriculture, Forest ServiceGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cremer K, Cromer R, Florence R (1978) Stand establishment. In: Hillis W, Brown A (eds) Eucalyptus for wood production. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Aulmlia, pp 81–135Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Knudsen D, Yahner E, Carrea H (1970) Fertilizing Eucalyptus on Brazilian savannah soils. Commonw Forest Rev 49(1):30–40Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    DeBell D, Whitesell C, Schubert T (1989) Using N2-fixing Albizia to increase growth of Eucalyptus plantations in Hawaii. Forest Sci 25:64–75Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    De Jesus R, Dias G, Cardoso E (1992) Eucalyptus/leucaena mixture experiment – growth and yields. Biomass and Bioenergy, IPEF, 39:41–46Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Shailaja R, Ravindranath N, Jagadish K (1991) Experiments in mixed species forestry. In: Annual symposium of bioenergy society, New Delhi, 1991Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Elmore C (1983) Vegetation management in Eucalyptus. In: Proceedings of a workshop on Eucalyptus in California, Sacramento, 1983. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Arbogen (2010) Purpose grown trees as an economical and sustainable biomass feedstock. Available from: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/biomass2010/pdfs/biomass2010_track2_s2_wells.pdf
  140. 140.
    Sims R et al (2008) 1st to 2nd generation biofuel technologies: an overview of current industry and RD&D activites. International Energy Agency, ParisGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kinoshita C, Zhou J (1999) Siting evaluation for biomass-ethanol production in Hawaii. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stape J et al (2010) The Brazil Eucalyptus potential productivity project: influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production. For Ecol Manage 259:1684–1694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hubbard H, Kinoshita C (1993) Investigation of biomass-for-energy production on Molokai. Hawaii Naturall Energy Institute, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gonzalez R, Wright J, Saloni D (2010) The business of growing eucalyptus for biomass, Biomass Magazine. http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/3620/the-business-of-growing-eucalyptus-for-biomass. Accessed November 29, 2010
  145. 145.
    de Vries S et al (2010) Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops, processed by first-generation conversion techniques. Biomass Bioenergy 34(5):588–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Almodares A, Hadi M (2009) Production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum: a review. Afr J Agric Res 4:772–780Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Koppen S, Reinhardt G, Gartner S (2009) Assessment of energy and greenhouse gas inventories of sweet sorghum for first and second generation bioethanol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Santana R, Barros N, Comeford N (2000) Above-ground biomass, nutrient content, and nutrient use efficiency of Eucalyptus plantations growing in different sites in Brazil. NZ J Forest Sci 30:225–236Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Stape J, Goncalves J, Goncalves A (2001) Relationship btween nursery practices and field performances for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil: a historical overview and its increasing importance. New Forest 22:19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Raven P (2009) Biodiversity: What to Do About It in an Age of Rapid Extinction. Presented at the International Plant Molecular Biology Symposium, St. Louis, MOGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth E. Hood
    • 1
  • Keat (Thomas) Teoh
    • 2
  • Shivakumar P. Devaiah
    • 2
  • Deborah Vicuna Requesens
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Agriculture and TechnologyArkansas State University, AR Biosciences InstituteJonesboroUSA
  2. 2.Arkansas Biosciences InstituteArkansas State UniversityJonesboroUSA