Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2014 Edition
| Editors: Gerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd

Drug Courts

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5690-2_200
  • 165 Downloads

Overview

Drug courts are the oldest, most prolific, and most studied of the major alternative court models, which also include domestic violence, mental health, community, and reentry courts. Similar to these other models, drug courts organize their cases on a separate court calendar, presided over by a specially trained judge. What distinguishes drug courts is their focus on cases involving an underlying drug addiction. To treat the addiction, drug courts employ a combination of treatment and judicial oversight, generally for 1 year or longer. Judicial oversight generally involves regular drug testing, meetings with court-affiliated case managers, and status hearings before the judge. At these hearings, the judge and participant directly converse, while the attorneys often remain silent. The judge typically responds to progress with verbal praise or tangible incentives (e.g., certificates, journals, or gift cards) and to noncompliance with interim sanctions (e.g., more frequent status...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading and References

  1. Drug Policy Alliance (2011) Drug courts are not the answer: toward a health-centered approach to drug use. Drug Policy Alliance, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews DA, Bonta J (2006) The psychology of criminal conduct, 4th edn. LexisNexis, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnoski R, Aos S (2003) Washington state’s drug courts for adult defendants: outcome evaluation and cost-benefit analysis. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, OlympiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhati A, Roman J, Chalfin A (2008) To treat or not to treat: evidence on the prospects of expanding treatment to drug-involved offenders. The Urban Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Bureau of Justice Assistance (1997) Defining drug courts: the key components. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2012) Correctional populations: key facts at a glance. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/glance/tables/corr2tab.cfm
  7. Carey SM, Crumpton D, Finigan MW, Waller MS (2005) California drug courts: a methodology for determining costs and benefits, phase II: testing the methodology: final report. NPC Research, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  8. Deschenes E, Turner S, Greenwood P (1995) Drug court or probation? An experimental evaluation of Maricopa County’s drug court. Justice Syst J 18:55–73Google Scholar
  9. Farole DJ, Rempel M, Byrne F, Chang Y (2008) Problem-solving and the American bench: a national survey of trial court judges. Center for Court Innovation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Fielding JE, Tye G, Ogawa P, Imam IJ, Long AM (2002) Los Angeles county drug court programs: initial results. J Subst Abuse Treat 23:217–224Google Scholar
  11. Fritsche S, Bryan J, Kralstein D, Farley E (2011) The Bronx family treatment court 2005–2010: impact on family court outcomes and participant experiences and perceptions. Center for Court Innovation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldkamp J, White MD, Robinson JB (2002) An honest chance perspective on drug courts: findings from drug court participant focus groups in Brooklyn, Las Vegas, Miami, Portland, San bernadino, and Seattle. Crime and Justice Research Institute, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Gottfredson DC, Kearley B, Najaka SS, Rocha CM (2005) The Baltimore city drug treatment court: 3-year outcome study. Eval Rev 29(1):42–64Google Scholar
  14. Gottfredson DC, Kearley B, Najaka SS, Rocha CM (2006) Long-term effects of participation in the Baltimore city drug treatment court: results from an experimental study. J Exp Criminol 2(1):67–98Google Scholar
  15. Gottfredson DC, Kearley B, Najaka SS, Rocha CM (2007) How drug treatment courts work: an analysis of mediators. J Res Crime Delinq 4(3):3–35Google Scholar
  16. Green BL, Furrer CJ, Worcel SD, Burrus SWM, Finigan MW (2009) Building the evidence base for family drug treatment courts: results from recent outcome studies. Drug Court Review VI(2):53–82Google Scholar
  17. Gutierrez L, Bourgon G (2009) Drug treatment courts: a quantitative review of study and treatment quality. Retrieved 30 Sept 2011 from the Public Safety Canada Web site: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cor/rep/2009-04-dtc-eng.aspx
  18. Hoffman MB (2000) The drug court scandal. North Carolina Law Rev 78:1439–1533Google Scholar
  19. Hora PF, Schma WD, Rosenthal JTH (1999) Therapeutic jurisprudence and the drug treatment court movement: revolutionalizing the criminal justice system’s response to drug abuse and crime in America. Notre Dame Law Review 74:439–537Google Scholar
  20. Huddleston W, Marlowe DB (2011) Painting the current picture: a national report on drug courts and other problem-solving court programs in the United States. National Drug Court Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Lipsey MW, Landenberger NA, Wilson SJ (2007) Effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for criminal offenders. The Campbell Collaboration, OslowGoogle Scholar
  22. Lutze FE, van Wormer JG (2007) The nexus between drug and alcohol treatment program integrity and drug court effectiveness: policy recommendations for pursuing success. Crim Just Pol Rev 18(3):226–245Google Scholar
  23. Marlowe D (2012) Alternative tracks in adult drug courts: Matching your program to the needs of your clients: Part two of a two-part series. Alexandria: National Drug Court InstituteGoogle Scholar
  24. Marlowe DB, Kirby KC (1999) Effective use of sanctions in drug courts: lessons from behavior research. Natl Drug Court Inst Rev 2(1):1–31Google Scholar
  25. Marlowe DB, Festinger DS, Lee PA, Schepise MM, Hazzard JER, Merrill JC, Mulvaney FD, McLellan AT (2003) Are judicial status hearings a key component of drug court? During-treatment data from a randomized trial. Crim Justice Behav 30:141–162Google Scholar
  26. McCoy C (2003) The politics of problem-solving: an overview of the origins and development of therapeutic courts. Am Crim Law Rev 40:1513–1544Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell O, Wilson DB, Eggers E, MacKenzie DL (2012) Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: a meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts. J Crim Just 40:60–71Google Scholar
  28. National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (NADCL) (2009) America’s problem-solving courts: the criminal costs of treatment and the case for reform. National Association of Defense Lawyers, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Office of Justice Programs (2012) Seven program design features: adult drug court principles, research, and practice. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, National Institute of Justice, and National Center for State Courts. http://research2practice.org/resources/
  30. Ostrom B, Kauder N (1999) Examining the work of state courts, 1998: a national perspective from the court statistics project. National Center for State Courts, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  31. Rempel M, DeStefano CD (2001) Predictors of engagement in court-mandated treatment: findings at the Brooklyn treatment court, 1996–2000. J Offender Rehabil 33(4):87–124Google Scholar
  32. Rempel M, Fox-Kralstein D, Cissner A, Cohen R, Labriola M, Farole D, Bader A, Magnani M (2003) The New York state adult drug court evaluation: policies, participants, and impacts. Center for Court Innovation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Rossman SB, Roman JK, Zweig JM, Rempel M, Lindquist CH (eds) (2011) The multi-site adult drug court evaluation. The Urban Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Salvatore C, Henderson MA, Hiller ML, White E, Samuelson B (2010) An observational study of team meetings and status hearings in a juvenile drug court. Drug Court Review 7(1):95–124Google Scholar
  35. Schaeffer CM, Henggeler SW, Chapman JE, Halliday-Boykins CA, Cunningham PB, Randall J, Shapiro SB (2010) Mechanisms of effectiveness in juvenile drug court: altering risk processes associated with delinquency and substance abuse. Drug Court Review 7(1):57–94Google Scholar
  36. Shaffer DK (2011) Looking inside the black box of drug courts: a meta-analytic review. Justice Quart 28(3):493–521Google Scholar
  37. Tyler TR, Huo YJ (2002) Trust in the law. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Wexler DB (1993) Therapeutic jurisprudence and the criminal courts. Wm Mary L Rev 35:279–299Google Scholar
  39. Young D, Belenko S (2002) Program retention and perceived coercion in three models of mandatory drug treatment. J Drug Issues 22(2):297–328Google Scholar
  40. Zhang A (2003) Drug and alcohol use and related matters among arrestees 2003. National Opinion Research Center, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Drug Courts, Criminal Justice InterventionCenter for Court InnovationNew YorkUSA