Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo


  • Yann Moulier Boutang
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_92


In the industrialized and modern context, where waged labor represents 85 % of the total active population at work, employment is the socially accepted and/or institutional forms and codification of dependant activity. At a macroeconomic level, employment measures the good use of manpower, whereas its contrary, unemployment, means less personal idleness than a social inefficiency of the economy. On the other hand, full employment has been described as the sine qua non objective for public policies. However, historical and critical approaches show that status of employment is far from being plain and clear. The precariousness of work in modern economies for a consistent proportion of the population, especially young people, seems to have ended with the society of full employment and seriously shaken the credibility of employment protected by the welfare state in the dialectics of security and subordination.


In a broad sense, employment means any kind of use of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Technologique de CompiègneCompiègneFrance