Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo

Expertise, Overview

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_607

Introduction

Differences between experts and novices have been studied in laboratory and field settings, especially in cognitive psychology. At the same time, critical theorists have reinterpreted expertise research data as intuitive, situated responses and analyzed how expertise functions in social discourse.

Definitions

Psychologists derive the definition of expertise from the idea of an expert. Theorists (e.g., Ericsson, 2006; Weisberg, 2006) usually define experts as individuals who are skillful or well informed in a domain and who have had prolonged, intense experience in the domain. Recognition of expert status by others (eminence) can also be part of the definition (Simonton, 1996). “Expertise then refers to the characteristics, skills and knowledge that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people” (Ericsson, 2006, p. 3).

Social constructivists have looked specifically at how expert authority functions in discourse. For example, building on Foucault’s (1965/1988...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). The mind’s eye in chess. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 215–281). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Chi, M. T. H. (2006). Two approaches to the study of experts’ characteristics. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 21–30). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Danziger, K. (1994). Constructing the subject: Historical origins of psychological research. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. de Groot, A. (1978). Thought and choice in chess (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Amsterdam Academic Press. (Original work published 1965). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=b2G1CRfNqFYC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
  5. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. L. (1983). From Socrates to expert systems: The limits of calculative rationality. In C. Mitcham (Ed.), Philosophy and technology II: Information technology and computers in theory and practice (pp. 111–128). Hillham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Dreyfus, H. L. & Dreyfus, S. L. (2005). Peripheral vision: Expertise in real-world contexts. Organizational Studies, 26, 779–792. Retrieved from http://oss.sagepub.com/content/26/5/779
  7. Ericsson, K. A. (2006). An introduction to the Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: Its development, organization and content. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 3–19). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.Google Scholar
  9. Feltovich, P. J., Prietula, M. J., & Ericsson, K. A. (2006). Studies of expertise from psychological perspectives. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 41–67). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Foucault, M. (1988). Madness and civilization: A history of insanity in the age of reason (R. Howard, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books. (Original work published in 1965).Google Scholar
  11. Foucault, M. (1994). The birth of the clinic: An archeology of medical perception. New York: Vintage Books. (Original work published in 1963).Google Scholar
  12. Hacking, I. (1995). Rewriting the soul: Multiple personality and the sciences of memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hacking, I. (2002). Historical ontology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hunt, E. (2006). Expertise, talent, and social encouragement. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 31–38). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Rose, N. (1998). Inventing ourselves: Psychology, power, and personhood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Rose, N. (1999). The governing of the soul: The shaping of the private self (2nd ed.). New York: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  17. Simon, H. A., & Chase, W. G. (1973). Skill in chess. American Scientist, 61, 394–403.Google Scholar
  18. Simonton, D. K. (1996). Creative expertise: A life-span developmental perspective. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games (pp. 227–253). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  19. Sims, V. K., & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Domain specificity of spatial expertise: The case of video game players. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16(1), 97–115.Google Scholar
  20. Slaboda, J. (1996). The acquisition of musical performance expertise: Deconstructing the “talent” account of individual differences in musical expressivity. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games (pp. 107–126). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Creativity: Understanding innovation in problem solving, science, invention and the arts. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  22. Winner, E. (1996). The rage to master: The decisive role of talent in the visual arts. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games (pp. 271–301). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar

Online Resources

  1. de Groot, A. (1978). Thought and choice in chess (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Amsterdam Academic Press. (Original work published 1965). Retrieved from http://books.google.co/books?id=b2G1CRfNqFYC&printsec=frontcover#v=one page&q&f=false
  2. Ericsson, K. A. Expert performance and deliberate practice: An updated excerpt from Ericsson. Retrieved from http://www.psy.fsu.edu/faculty/ericsson/ericsson.exp.perf.html
  3. Dreyfus, H., & Dreyfus, S. L. From Socrates to expert systems: The limits and dangers of calculative rationality. Retrieved from http://socrates.berkeley.edu/∼hdreyfus/html/paper_socrates.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human DevelopmentColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA