Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo

Exclusion, Overview

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_503

Introduction

To exclude is to shut out, hinder, bar, put out, or eject (Gove, 1993). Two related constructs, moral exclusion and social exclusion, describe how dominant groups marginalize particular kinds of people in ways that reduce or eliminate their access to essential and valued resources.

Definition

A thematic issue of Journal of Social Issues in 1990 introduced moral exclusion theory and its applications. Drawing on the construct, scope of justice, the psychological boundary for the applicability of justice (Deutsch, 1975), these papers described antecedents, processes, and outcomes of moral exclusion in schooling, immigration, and other societal contexts. They analyzed how excluding people from the scope of justice can become institutionalized and seem inevitable to justify harms experienced by excluded people as normal and routine (Opotow, 1990). Symptoms of exclusion include: victim blaming, unflattering and self-righteous comparisons, derogation, dehumanization,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Apfelbaum, E. (1979). Relations of domination and movements for liberation: An analysis of power between groups. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 188–204). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A., Underwood, B., & Fromson, M. E. (1975). Disinhibition of aggression through diffusion of responsibility and dehumanization of victims. Journal of Research in Personality, 9(4), 253–269.Google Scholar
  4. Barata, P. (2000). Social exclusion in Europe: Survey of literature. Toronto, Canada: The Laidlaw Foundation. Available at: http://action.web.ca/home/narcc/attach/Social[1].pdf
  5. Bar-Tal, D., & Hammack, P. L. (2012). Conflict, delegitimization and violence. In L. R. Tropp (Ed.), Oxford handbook of intergroup conflict. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Burchardt, T., Le Grand, J., & Piachaud, D. (2002). Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic, multidimensional measure. In J. Hills, J. Le Grand, & D. Piachaud (Eds.), Understanding social exclusion (pp. 30–43). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Davies, J. S. (2005). The social exclusion debate: Strategies, controversies and dilemmas. Policy Studies, 26(1), 3–27.Google Scholar
  8. Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1980). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  9. Deutsch, M. (1975). Equity, equality, and need: What determines which value will be used as the basis of distributive justice? Journal of Social Issues, 31(3), 137–149.Google Scholar
  10. Deutsch, M. (1985). Distributive justice: A social psychological perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fine, M., & Ruglis, J. (2009). Circuits and consequences of dispossession: The racialized realignment of the public sphere for U.S. youth. Transforming Anthropology, 17(1), 20–33.Google Scholar
  12. Fischer, A. M. (2008). Resolving the theoretical ambiguities of social exclusion with reference to polarisation and conflict. DESTIN, London School of Economics. Available at: http://www.gsdrc.org/go/display&type=Document&id=3221
  13. Gibney, M. (2008). Who should be included? Noncitizens, conflict and the constitution of the citizenry. In F. Stewart (Ed.), Horizontal inequalities and conflict: Understanding group violence in multiethnic societies (pp. 25–40). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Gove, P. B. (1993). Webster’s third new international dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster.Google Scholar
  15. Jackson, C. (1999). Social exclusion and gender: Does one size fit all? The European Journal of Development Research, 11(1), 125–146.Google Scholar
  16. Kahn, S. (2012). Topic guide on social exclusion (Revised). Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, International Development Centre, University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  17. Lenoir, R. (1974/1989). Les exclus: Un Francais sur dix. Paris: Editions du Seuil.Google Scholar
  18. Lewin, K. (1933/1986). Everything within me rebels: A letter from Kurt Lewin to Wolfgang Köhler, 1933. Journal of Social Issues, 42(4), 39–47.Google Scholar
  19. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  20. Opotow, S. (1990). Moral exclusion and injustice: An overview. Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  21. Opotow, S. (1995). Drawing the line: Social categorization, moral exclusion, and the scope of justice. In B. B. Bunker & J. Z. Rubin (Eds.), Conflict, cooperation, and justice (pp. 347–369). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  22. Opotow, S. (2008). Conflict and justice after the American Civil War: Inclusion and exclusion in the reconstruction and Jim Crow eras. In K. A. Hegtvedt & J. Clay-Warner (Eds.), Advances in group processes: Special issue on justice (Vol. 25, pp. 55–85). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  23. Opotow, S. (2012). The scope of justice, intergroup conflict, and peace. In L. R. Tropp (Ed.), Oxford handbook of intergroup conflict and peace. Oxford, UK: Oxford Library of Psychology.Google Scholar
  24. Opotow, S., & McClelland, S. I. (2007). The intensification of hating: A theory. Social Justice Research, 20(1), 68–97.Google Scholar
  25. Opotow, S., & Weiss, L. (2000). Denial and exclusion in environmental conflict. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 475–490.Google Scholar
  26. Room, G. (1995). Beyond the threshold: The measurement and analysis of social exclusion. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Silver, H. (1994). Social exclusion and social solidarity: Three paradigms. International Labour Review, 133–531.Google Scholar
  28. Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  29. UNICEF. (2006). Excluded and invisible: The state of the World’s children 2006. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
  30. Vaes, J., Paola, M., Castelli, L., Leyens, J.-P., & Giovanazzi, A. (2003). On the behavioral consequences of infrahumanization: The implicit role of uniquely human emotions in intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), 1016–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. World Bank. (2007). Tools for institutional, political, and social analysis of policy reform: A sourcebook for development practitioners. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTTOPPSISOU/Resources/1424002-1185304794278/TIPs_Sourcebook_English.pdf
  32. Young, J. (1999). The exclusive society: Social exclusion, crime and difference in late modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Online Resources

  1. Cabinet Office, United Kingdom. (2001, March). Preventing social exclusion: Report by the Social Exclusion Unit. Retrieved at http://www.housing.infoxchange.net.au/library/ahin/housing_policy/items/00054-upload-00001.pdf
  2. Bastagli, F., Cowell, F. A., Glennerster,H., Hills, J., Karagiannaki,E., & McKnight,A. (2013). Wealth distribution, accumulation and policy (Case Brief 33). Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economic and Political Science. Retrieved at http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case/
  3. Chinese Exclusion Act. (n.d.). Retrieved at http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=47
  4. Carroll, K. (2011). Addressing Inequality: Framing Social Protection in National Development Strategies (IDS Bulletin, vol. 42, no. 6, pp.89-95). Retrived from the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) at http://www.gsdrc.org/go/topic-guides/social-exclusion
  5. Ofreneo, M. A. P., & de Vela, T. C. (2007, February 26). Political violence as moral exclusion: Linking peace psychology to feminist critical theory. Isis International. Retrieved at http://www.isiswomen.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=438&Itemid=207
  6. Popay, J., Escorel, S., HernÃndez, M., Johnston, H. Mathieson, J., & Rispel, L. (2008). Final report to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health from the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network. Retrieved from the World Health Organization at http://www.who.int/social_determinants/themes/socialexclusion/en/index.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyJohn Jay College of Criminal Justice and The Graduate Center, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA