Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo

Sexual Harassment: Laws, Incidence, and Organizational Responses

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_397

Introduction

Gender violence has been defined by the United Nations as “…any act that is likely to or results in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats or acts of…coercion, arbitrary deprivations of liberty…private or public…in the family, community” (1995). Forms of violence included in this definition are rape, child sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, genital mutilation, trafficking, state-sanctioned violence against women, discrimination in education and workplace, and sexual harassment, the latter being the topic of this paper.

Definitions

Legal

In the United States, workplace sexual harassment is legally defined as “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature” when any one of the following criterion is met (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [EEOC], 1990):
  1. (a)

    Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of the...

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References

  1. Avina, C., & O’Donohue, W. (2002). Sexual harassment and PTSD: Is sexual harassment diagnosable trauma? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chan, D., Chow, S., Lam, C., & Cheung, S. (2008). Examining the job-related, psychological and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 362–376.Google Scholar
  3. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (1990). Policy guidance on current issues of sexual harassment. Retrieved January 18, 2012, from www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/currentissues.html
  4. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (1999). Enforcement guidance: Vicarious employer liability for unlawful harassment by supervisors. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from www.eeoc.gov/docs/harassment.html
  5. Glomb, T., Munson, L., Hulin, C., Bergman, M., & Drasgow, F. (1999). Structural equation models of sexual harassment: Longitudinal explorations and cross-sectional generalizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 14–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Langhout, R., Bergman, M., Cortina, L., Fitzgerald, L., Drasgow, F., & Williams, J. (2005). Sexual harassment severity: Assessing situational and personal determinants and outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 975–1007.Google Scholar
  7. Levy, A., & Paludi, M. (2002a). Workplace sexual harassment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Paludi, C., Paludi, M., Strauss, S., Coen, P., Fuda, M., Gerber, T., et al. (2010). Exercising “reasonable care”: Policies, procedures and training. In M. Paludi, C. Paludi, & E. DeSouza (Eds.), Praeger handbook on understanding and preventing workplace discrimination. (Legal, management and social science perspectives, Vol. 1, pp. 275–302). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  9. United Nations. (1995). Report of the fourth world conference on women, Beijing, 4–5 September. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  10. United States Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (1997). Sexual harassment guidance. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from www2.ed.gov/legislation/FedRegister/announcements/1997-1/0313976.html
  11. Woods, K., & Buchanan, N. (2008). Sexual harassment in the workplace. In M. Paludi (Ed.), The psychology of women at work (Career liberation, history and the new millennium, Vol. 1, pp. 119–132). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar

Online Resources

  1. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. www.eeoc.gov
  2. Feminist Majority Foundation. http://feminist.org/
  3. International Coalition Against Sexual Harassment. http://www2.nau.edu/∼pms/icash.html
  4. Office for Civil Rights, United States Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/index.html

Recommended Reading

  1. Fineran, S., & Gruber, J. (2009). Youth at work: Adolescent employment and sexual harassment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 550–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Levy, A., & Paludi, M. (2002b). Workplace sexual harassment (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Morgan, P., & Gruber, J. (2004). In the company of men: Male dominance and sexual harassment. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Paludi, M., Martin, J., & Paludi, C. (2007). Sexual harassment: The hidden gender equity problem. In S. Klein (Ed.), Handbook for achieving gender equity through education (2nd ed., pp. 215–229). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Paludi, M., & Paludi, C. (Eds.). (2003). Academic and workplace sexual harassment: A handbook of cultural, social science, management and legal perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  6. Sandler, B., & Stonehill, H. (2005). Student to student sexual harassment in K-12: Strategies and solutions for educations to use in the classroom, school and community. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementUnion Graduate CollegeSchenectadyUSA