Psychological inquiries into self or selfhood represent diverse and divergent schools of thought with different histories and practice applications. Topics overlap subjectivity, identity, personality, and consciousness. The ontology of the self is hotly debated in psychology as in philosophy, but debates are often entered as the assertion of standpoints endorsing research directions. Psychology prioritizes inquiries into how persons develop and maintain self-understanding and the role that particular self-perceptions may play in behavior or mental health. Despite their diversity, all theories refer to the reflexivity of the self, its formation as personal adaptations to reality, and the role of the social environment.
The area of least controversy concerns awareness of oneself as an immediate subject of experience and the agent of own actions, which is related to sensory perception and depends on brain processes (not reviewed here). The area of most controversy concerns...
- Bruner, J. S. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Doi, T. (1971). The anatomy of dependence. Tokyo: Kodansha International.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. London: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar
- Geertz, C. (1974). “From the native’s point of view”: On the nature of anthropological understanding. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 28, 26–45.Google Scholar
- Gergen, K. J. (1994). Realities and relationships. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Harré 1998.Google Scholar
- Harré, R. (1998). The singular self. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Harré, R., & van Langenhove, L. (Eds.). (1999). Positioning theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
- Jones, R. A., & Morioka, M. (Eds.). (2011). Jungian and dialogical self perspectives. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
- Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 420–430.Google Scholar
- McAdams, D. P. (1993). The stories we live by. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Taylor, C. (1989). Sources of the self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Wiley, N. (1994). The semiotic self. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar