Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo


  • Betty M. Bayer
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_298


To many, any history of the modern subject absent spirituality is, if not misbegotten, then certainly incomplete. That is, to investigate modern spirituality is to inquire into the nature of human nature, including debates on subjectivity, inner experience, ontology, affectivity and human consciousness writ large. At its best, scholarship on spirituality moves beyond reductive accounts of human consciousness to mind or brain to remind scholars in any number of fields – religion, sociology, biology, neurology, physics, philosophy, neuropsychology, cognition, and psychology – of the complicatedness of consciousness, and, by extension, of how we imagine what it is to be human from the inside out and the outside in. “The range of Spiritualist views,” writes Ann Taves (1999), “fell along a continuum with Nature as the (sole) source of all revelation at one end and the Bible as the sole source of revelation at the other” (p. 184). To invoke nature was to locate the source of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Martin Marty Center, University of ChicagoChicagoUSA