Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo


  • Julia C. Becker
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_279


Around the world (white) men rule. Most obviously, this can be seen in objective indicators of gender inequality like the gender pay gap, or the small number of women represented in high-status positions or parliaments (e.g., United Nations, 2010). Moreover, many women experience direct gender discrimination in their everyday lives (see, e.g., Benokraitis & Feagin, 1995). Yet, there is remarkably little protest against gender inequality. From a critical-psychological perspective, this is an interesting phenomenon. It has been argued that among other things, unequal gender relations are perpetuated through subtle forms of sexism that are promoted by the high-status, dominant group but can be internalized and endorsed by the lower-status group. This entry provides an overview about subtle, contemporary forms of sexism and aims at explaining how sexist ideologies help to maintain gender inequality in societies at large.


Sexism can be defined as individuals’ beliefs...

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Online Resources

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyPhilipps-University MarburgMarburgGermany