Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo

Sex/Gender Differences

  • Eva Magnusson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_120

Introduction

When gender (see entries on “ Gender, Overview” and “ Sexual Identity”) and psychology are discussed together, so usually are differences between men and women, or girls and boys. Mass media, advice books, and popular psychology books frequently focus on how women and men differ; and daily life provides many instances where such differences can be observed. There is often disagreement about the existence of differences, about the size of existing differences, about their origin, and about what observed differences ultimately mean. For the last 100 years, psychologists have eagerly researched differences between men and women, with a view to reaching generalizable answers about how they differ and to using those answers in education and other policy fields. Consequently, research about differences between men and women, or girls and boys, has distinct potential practice relevance.

Psychological gender difference research relies on quantitative measurements and a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  2. Guiso, L., Monte, F., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2008). Diversity: Culture, gender, and math. Science, 320, 1164–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hare-Mustin, R. T., & Marecek, J. (1994). Asking the right questions: Feminist psychology and sex differences. Feminism & Psychology, 4(4), 531–537.Google Scholar
  4. Hollingworth, L. S. (1916). Sex differences in mental traits. Psychological Bulletin, 12, 377–384.Google Scholar
  5. Hyde, J. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60, 581–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Jordan-Young, R. (2010). Brain storm: The flaws in the science of sex differences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Kitzinger, C. (Ed.). (1994). Should psychologists study sex differences? (Special feature). Feminism & Psychology, 4(4), 501–546.Google Scholar
  8. Magnusson, E. (2011). Women, men, and all the other categories: Psychologies for theorizing human diversity. Nordic Psychology, 63(2), 88–114.Google Scholar
  9. Richards, G. (2010). Putting psychology in its place. A critical historical perspective (3rd ed.). London, England: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Robinson, D. N. (1995). The logic of reductionistic models. New Ideas in Psychology, 13(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  11. Shields, S. (2008). Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex Roles, 59, 301–311.Google Scholar
  12. Skoger, U., Lindberg, L., & Magnusson, E. (2011). Neutrality, gender stereotypes, and analytical voids: The ideals and practices of Swedish child psychologists. Feminism & Psychology, 21, 372–392.Google Scholar
  13. Thompson Woolley, H. (1910). A review of the recent literature on the psychology of sex. Psychological Bulletin, 7, 335–342.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden