Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology

2014 Edition
| Editors: Thomas Teo


  • Betty M. Bayer
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5583-7_109


Called the longest running revolution, Modern Feminism took up Enlightenment’s natural rights doctrine to challenge one and another form of women’s inferiority and subordination, across the world, centuries of time and belief. But, as some attest, feminist stirrings reach back to the beginning of time, citing Sappho’s poetry or Hildegard of Bingen’s music, medical treatises, and books inspired by divine revelations as cases in point. Uncovering feminist forerunners, debating modernity’s role in sex and gender distinctions, and upending philosophical, religious, medical, legal, and political doctrine on the sexes as inherently different from and unequal to one another have all been part and parcel of feminism. Moving from questions of everyday life to ones asking, as Joan Kelly famously did, “Did women have a renaissance?” feminist movements sought as well to imagine cultural and political deprivations attending systems of equality, as Woolf so poignantly depicted in her...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Martin Marty Center, University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Women's StudiesHobart and William Smith CollegesGenevaUSA