Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Collaborative Innovation and Open Innovation

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_500



Consumers’ demand for products has moved, since the eighties, toward products customized to personal needs. This change has incited firms to work closely with other organizations and especially customers, in order to anticipate better the future needs, inducing a growth in external relationships of firms. This trend is still at work in most of industries in which lead users impulse evolution in products. In consequence, the collaborative process continues to increase. At the same time, the efficiency of the production by in-house R&D of firms’ decreases to such an extent that following Chesbrough (2003), many scholars advise firms to access knowledge externally and to develop innovation with an open process of development: the open innovation model. They incite firms to use all the external sources which are available to be the first to introduce a new...

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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA CESAER (UMR 1041)Unité Mixte de Recherche INRA-AgrosupDijon CedexFrance