Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Four Ps of Creativity and Recent Updates

  • Mark A. RuncoEmail author
  • Daehyun Kim
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_429



There are many different definitions of creativity, even in the scientific literature on the subject. All of them emphasize originality; without originality, there can be no creativity. Yet there is more to creativity than originality. Originality is necessary but not sufficient for creativity. There must also be some effectiveness, usefulness, or fit. Without that, original things may be bizarre and useless. Creativity things are thus both original and effective. This applies to artifacts and products, such as inventions, artworks, and designs, but also applies to the personality traits that are shared by creative individuals. These traits give the individual the capacity to generate original and effective ideas. Indeed, the bipartite definition recognizing originality and effectiveness applies to all expressions and definitions of...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA