Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Creativity, Intelligence, and Culture

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_358

Before discussing how creativity and intelligence are impacted by culture, the basic question of how the two constructs are related must be addressed. Sternberg and O’Hara (1999) argued for five possible relationships: Creativity could be a subset of intelligence; intelligence could be a subset of creativity; or the constructs of creativity and intelligence could be overlapping, coincident, or simply disjointed.

Creativity and Intelligence

Most work, however, assumes a connection; as Plucker and Renzulli (1999) concluded, the key question is not whether but howthe two are related. Although creativity and intelligence are clearly related, the exact nature of this relationship is still being explored by research. Scholars have generally found that paper-and-pencil measures of creativity (such as divergent thinking tests) are significantly associated with psychometric measures of intelligence. Traditional wisdom has argued for a “threshold effect,” in which creative potential and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Kaufman JC. Using creativity to reduce ethnic bias in college admissions. Rev Gen Psychol. 2010;14:189–203.Google Scholar
  2. Kim KH. Can only intelligent people be creative? J Secondary Gifted Edu. 2005;16:57–66.Google Scholar
  3. Plucker JA, Renzulli JS. Psychometric approaches to the study of human creativity. In: Sternberg RJ, editor. Handbook of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1999. p. 35–60.Google Scholar
  4. Price-Williams DR, Ramirez III M. Divergent thinking, cultural differences, and bilingualism. J Soc Psychol. 1977;103:3–11.Google Scholar
  5. Reynolds CR. Methods for detecting and evaluating cultural bias in neuropsychological tests. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, Strickland TL, Reynolds CR, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural neuropsychology. New York: Plenum; 2000. p. 249–85.Google Scholar
  6. Rostan SM, Pariser D, Gruber HE. A cross-cultural study of the development of artistic talent, creativity, and giftedness. High Abil Stud. 2002;13:125–56.Google Scholar
  7. Sligh AC, Conners FA, Roskos-Ewoldsen B. Relation of creativity to fluid and crystallized intelligence. J Creative Behav. 2005;39:123–36.Google Scholar
  8. Sternberg RJ, Kaufman SB, editors. Cambridge handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. Sternberg RJ, O’Hara LA. Creativity and intelligence. In: Sternberg RJ, editor. Handbook of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1999. p. 251–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLearning Research Institute, California State University at San BernardinoSan BernardinoUSA
  2. 2.Learning Research Institute, California State University at San BernardinoSan BernardinoUSA