Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Cross-Retirement (Cross-Employed Cross-Retired) and Innovation

  • Gerhard W. E. BlascheEmail author
  • David F. J. Campbell
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_255


The Concept of Cross-Retirement

Phased or partial retirement describes retirement schemes allowing employees approaching retirement age to gradually reduce the number of working hours. Reasons may be a greater need for recovery from work, health problems, or a desire for more leisure time to gradually adapt to full-scale retirement. Thus, phased retirement enables older employees to remain in the labor market, but with less work pressure and more time for recreation. In these schemes, the potential loss of income may or may not be compensated by social transfer benefits. Cross-retirement (i.e., cross-employed and cross-retired) likewise aims at allowing the individual to combine the benefits of retirement and those of work in a similar way, but with some important distinctions. Cross-retirement (a) does not constitute a transition period but rather an additional phase of life...

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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard W. E. Blasche
    • 1
    Email author
  • David F. J. Campbell
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Public Health, Medical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (IFF), Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education ResearchAlpen--Adria--University KlagenfurtViennaAustria
  3. 3.University of Applied ArtsViennaAustria