Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis


  • David F. J. CampbellEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_254


Concept of Cross-Employment

Cross-employment represents a type of multi-employment, where a person is being employed simultaneously by more than one organization (institution). The emphasis here is placed on employment by at least two organizations, and it must be simultaneous (and not a sequential first-then) form of employment. The opposite concept to cross-employment would be the single employment by only one organization (or institution) at a time. Employment implies that the person is involved in social and tacit learning of the different organizations that also behave as organizational environments. When employment is in reference to knowledge production and knowledge application, then cross-employment should also be...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (IFF), Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education ResearchAlpen--Adria--University KlagenfurtViennaAustria
  2. 2.University of Applied ArtsViennaAustria