Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Clusters, Networks, and Entrepreneurship

  • Marc-Hubert DepretEmail author
  • Abdelillah Hamdouch
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_199



Innovation processes often depend upon the availability or constitution of a critical mass of knowledge, (multidisciplinary) competences, and (entrepreneurial, managerial, and human) resources that are complex, cumulative, and, for the most, still embryonic or difficult to access. Considerable efforts must be also devoted for the mobilization and training of the manpower, for the acquisition of new knowledge and know-how, and for informing employees about new technologies and services and their market potential. Equally important here is the need for a close coordination among a great number of heterogeneous and geographically dispersed actors. The potential for innovation and the competitive positioning of actors “depend increasingly on their differentiated abilities to collaborate with a wide range of partners – those with key complementary competences and significant...

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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Poitiers, IRIAF, CRIEFNiortFrance
  2. 2.Planning DepartmentPolytechnic School, University of ToursToursFrance