Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

2013 Edition
| Editors: Elias G. Carayannis

Creative Thinking Training

  • Blair Miller
  • Jonathan Vehar
  • Roger Firestien
  • Robert P. Eckert
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3858-8_11

Synonyms

Introduction

Kirkpatrick ( 1967) noted four levels of evaluation of training:
  • Level 1: Reaction. How well did the participants like the program?

  • Level 2: Learning. What principles, facts, and techniques were learned?

  • Level 3: Behavior. What changes in job behavior resulted from the program?

  • Level 4: Results. What were the tangible results of the program in terms of reduced cost, improved quality, improved quantity, etc.?

Impact research focused on creative thinking and creative problem solving (CPS) programs details levels two and three, plus less common level four, evaluation (Firestien 1990; Firestien and McCowan 1988; Keller-Mathers 1990; Miller 1992; Neilson 1990; Puccio et al. 2006; Reid 1997; Vehar 1994; Vehar et al. 2000). In addition to published research, there are unpublished proprietary impact studies for companies ranging from large publishing companies to large consulting firms.

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References

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  9. Miller BJ. The use of outdoor-based training initiatives to enhance the understanding of creative problem solving. Unpublished Masters Project, Center for Studies in Creativity, State University College at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY; 1992.Google Scholar
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  21. Vehar JR. An impact study to improve a five-day course in facilitating creative problem solving. Unpublished Masters Project, Center for Studies in Creativity, State University College at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY; 1994.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Blair Miller
    • 1
  • Jonathan Vehar
    • 2
  • Roger Firestien
    • 3
  • Robert P. Eckert
    • 4
  1. 1.Blair Miller InnovationEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Creative LeadershipGreensboroUSA
  3. 3.Innovation Resources Inc.BuffaloUSA
  4. 4.New & Improved, LLCPaul SmithsUSA