Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence-Based Neuroimaging

  • Karen A. Tong
  • Udochukwu E. Oyoyo
  • Barbara A. Holshouser
  • Stephen Ashwal
  • L. Santiago Medina
Part of the Evidence-Based Imaging book series (Evidence-Based Imag.)


Evidence-based information regarding imaging of traumatic brain injury is not as readily available as other diseases or pathology. To complicate matters, head injury is a heterogeneous event that can be influenced by many factors including mechanism or severity of injury, secondary injuries, patient age or comorbidities, among other things. Direct comparison of population-based studies is hampered by differences in practice patterns and inconsistent definitions of injury or outcomes. The majority of evidence relates to the use of CT for detecting injuries that may require immediate treatment or surgery; and CT continues to be the primary imaging tool in the acute period - due to speed, availability, ease of exam, and cost. Prediction rules have the potential to improve and standardize care, but are currently only used in some pediatric populations. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for brain injury is generally superior to CT, especially for detection of diffusion axonal injury. MRI may also be better for providing prognostic information and aiding management decisions. However, evidence-based literature for MRI remains sparse, and further research is needed.


Glasgow Coma Scale Glasgow Outcome Scale Glasgow Coma Scale Score Midline Shift Moderate Evidence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen A. Tong
    • 1
  • Udochukwu E. Oyoyo
    • 2
  • Barbara A. Holshouser
    • 3
  • Stephen Ashwal
    • 4
  • L. Santiago Medina
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of NeuroscienceLoma Linda University Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biophysics and BioengineeringLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiology/MRILoma Linda University Medical CenterLoma LindaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsLoma Linda University School of MedicineLoma LindaUSA
  5. 5.Division of Neuroradiology-Neuroimaging, Department of RadiologyMiami Children’s HospitalMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Herbert Wertheim College of MedicineFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  7. 7.Former Lecturer in RadiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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