Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

2015 Edition
| Editors: Henrik Hargitai, Ákos Kereszturi

Small Volcano (Venus)

  • Henrik Hargitai
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3134-3_353

Definition

Volcano of less than 20 km in diameter on Venus (Head et al. 1992).

Description

Typically shield-shaped, radar-smooth or rough, 0.5–20 km diameter quasi-circular to circular edifices with or without a summit pit (e.g., Hansen 2005).

Morphometry

Small volcanoes studied by Kreslavsky and Head (1999) are 1–19 km high (average, 3–5 km) and 24–1,242 m high (average, 110–200 m).

Subtypes

The topographic classes of small volcanic edifices are (Aubele 1993; Guest et al. 1992): (1) shield shaped (most common) ( shield volcanoes); (2) domical shaped ( dome); (3) cone shaped ( volcanic cones), and (4) flat topped (mesa).

Interpretation

Effusive shield volcanoes (Aubele and Slyuta 1990): “the surface manifestation of low-volume eruptions of magma from shallow reservoirs and dike-like bodies” (Ivanov and Head 2004).

Age

Small volcanoes occur in a variety of geologic and stratigraphic settings on Venus.

In the equilibrium (nondirectional) resurfacing model, small volcanoes represent a global process occurring locally throughout the recent history of Venus (e.g., Addington 2001).

In the directional volcanic evolution model (Basilevsky and Head 1998; Kreslavsky and Head 1999; and Ivanov and Head 2004), small volcanoes occur in a unit in unusual abundance, below the regional plains unit. Emplacement of  shield plains represents a period of preferential formation of small edifices. Following this period, volcanic style changed and lava from few sources ( wrinkle-ridge plains) flooded and embayed shield plains. Small volcanoes postdating regional plains are associated with large young volcanic centers and exclusively occur in the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) region (Ivanov and Head 2004).

Distribution

Small volcanoes are scattered on  shield plains and  wrinkle-ridge plains (Fig. 1) and are concentrated in  shield fields (Ivanov and Head 2011). Based on low-resolution Venera 15/16 data, it has been estimated that there are on the order of four million small volcanoes on Venus (Aubele and Slyuta 1990). Magellan images are estimated to contain 1 million <15 km volcanoes (Burl et al. 1993).
Small Volcano (Venus), Fig. 1

Small volcanoes 42°N, 314°E (Guinevere Planitia). Small volcanoes are scattered in  shield plains unit (radar-bright unit at the bottom and within radar-dark unit) and in  wrinkle-ridge plains (regional plains) unit (radar-dark unit and radar-bright unit on top) where shields are proposed to be exposures ( Kipuka) embayed by the plains material (Kreslavsky and Head 1999). Magellan left-look radar (NASA/JPL)

Significance

Small volcano distribution and morphometry can be used to assess stratigraphic relationships (Basilevsky and Head 1998) and thickness (Kreslavsky and Head 1999) of volcanic plains units. Deposits of small volcanoes play a major role in lowland resurfacing (Hansen 2005).

Terrestrial Analog

Global abundance, distribution, and size range are similar to those of terrestrial  seamounts (Aubele and Slyuta 1990).

Planetary Analogs

History of Investigation

Discovered in Venera 15/16 radar images, initially called “small domes” (Barsukov et al. 1984) following lunar nomenclature and were thought to be similar to volcanic domes and cinder cones on Earth and Mars. The category included features <15 km (Barsukov et al. 1986; Slyuta et al. 1988). The specific size divisions of Venusian volcanoes are in part arbitrary defined, but also derive from the cumulative size-frequency distribution (Crumpler et al. 1997). The need for cataloging the very large number of small volcanoes on Venus initiated the development of automated learning-based pattern recognition systems (Burl et al. 1993, 1998; Wiles and Forshaw 1992).

See Also

References

  1. Addington EA (2001) A Stratigraphic study of small volcano clusters on Venus. Icarus 149:16–36Google Scholar
  2. Aubele JC (1993) Venus small volcano classification and description. Lunar Planet Sci Conf XXIV:47–48, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  3. Aubele JC, Slyuta EN (1990) Small domes on Venus: characteristics and origins. Earth Moon Planet 50(51):493–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barsukov VL, Basilevsky AT, Kuzmin RO, Pronin RO et al (1984) Geology of Venus from the results of analysis of radar images taken by Venera 15 and 16 probes: preliminary data. Geokhimica 12:1811–1820Google Scholar
  5. Barsukov VL et al. (1986) The geology and geomorphology of the Venus surface as revealed by the radar images obtained by Veneras 15 and 16. Lunar Planet Sci XVI in J Geophys Res 91(B4):D378–D398Google Scholar
  6. Basilevsky AT, Head JW (1998) The geologic history of Venus: a stratigraphic view. J Geophys Res 103(E4):8531–8544Google Scholar
  7. Burl MC, Fayyad UM, Perona P, Smyth P, Burl MP (1993) A trainable tool for finding small Volcanoes in SAR imagery of Venus. CNS TR-34, California Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  8. Burl MC, Asker L, Smyth P, Fayyad U, Perona P, Crumpler L, Aubele J (1998) Learning to recognize Volcanoes on Venus. Mach Learn 30:165–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crumpler LS, Aubele JC, Senske DA, Keddie SW, Magee K, Head JW (1997) Volcanoes and centers of Volcanism on Venus. In: Bougher SW et al (ed) Venus II. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 697–756Google Scholar
  10. Guest JE, Bulmer MH, Aubele J, Beratan K, Greeley R, Head JW, Michaels G, Weitz C, Wiles C (1992) Small Volcanic edifices and Volcanism in the plains of Venus. J Geophys Res 97(E10):15,949–15,966. doi:10.1029/92JE01438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hansen VL (2005) Venus’s shield terrain. Geol Soc Am Bull 117(5-6):808–822. doi:10.1130/B256060.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Head JW, Crumpler LS, Aubele JC, Guest JE, Saunders RS (1992) Venus Volcanism: classification of Volcanic features and structures, associations, and global distribution from Magellan Data. J Geophys Res 97(E8):13,153–13,197. doi10.1029/92JE01273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ivanov MA, Head JW (2004) Stratigraphy of small shield volcanoes on Venus: criteria for determining stratigraphic relationships and assessment of relative age and temporal abundance. J Geophys Res 109, E10001. doi:10.1029/2004JE002252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ivanov MA, Head JW (2011) Global geological map of Venus. Planet Space Sci 59:1559–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kreslavsky MA, Head JW (1999) Morphometry of small shield volcanoes of Venus: implications for the thickness of regional plains. J Geophys Res 104(E8):18925–18932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Slyuta EN, Nikolaeva OV, Kreslavsky MA (1988) Distribution of small domes on Venus: Venera 15/16 Radar Data. Lunar Planet Sci Conf XIX:1097–1098, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  17. Wiles CR, Forshaw MRB (1992) Automated detection and measurements of small Volcanoes on Venus. Lunar Planet Sci Conf XXIII:1527–1528, HoustonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Ames Research Center/NPPMoffett FieldUSA