Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

2015 Edition
| Editors: Henrik Hargitai, Ákos Kereszturi

Double Ridge (Europa)

  • D. Alex Patthoff
  • Kathleen L. Craft
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3134-3_138


“A central crack or trough flanked by two raised edifices, up to a few hundred meters high and less than 5 km wide” (Kattenhorn and Hurford 2009).


Doublet ridge; Ridge;  Ridge pair;  Trough-bounding ridge pair


Double ridge is the most common type of ridge on Europa: the term ‘ridge’ usually refers to double ridge.


(Seen as  triple band in Voyager images) A ridge pair with a continuous, V-shaped medial trough whose depth is less than the height of the ridges. They are 100s m wide on average, though in some cases are up to less than 5 km across (Kattenhorn and Hurford 2009; Greeley et al. 2000). Double ridges are the most ubiquitous morphology on Europa and run almost linearly with generally uniform morphological characteristics for up to more than 1,000 km (Prockter and Patterson 2009 and references therein). The majority of ridge slopes are <20° (Coulter and Kattenhorn 2010; Coulter 2009) and display mass-wasting features (e.g., Head et al. 1999)....

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Billings SE, Kattenhord SA (2002) Determination of ice crust thickness from flanking cracks along ridges on Europa. Lunar Planet Sci Conf XXXIII, abstract #1813, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  2. Collins GC, McKinnon WB, Moore JM, Nimmo F, Pappalardo RT, Prockter LM, Schenk PM (2010) Tectonics of the outer planet satellites. In: Schultz RA, Watters TR (eds) Planetary tectonics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 264–350Google Scholar
  3. Coulter CE (2009) Kinematic and morphological evolution of Europa’s ridges. Master’s thesis, University of IdahoGoogle Scholar
  4. Coulter CE, Kattenhorn SA (2010) The morphology of Europa’s ridges examined in a detailed topographic and kinematic survey. Eos (Fall Suppl) 91:P21B–P1599BGoogle Scholar
  5. Dombard AJ, Patterson GW, Lederer AP, Prockter LM (2013) Flanking fractures and the formation of double ridges on Europa. Icarus 223:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Greeley R, Figueredo PH, Williams DA, Chuang FC, Klemaszewski JE, Kadel SD, Prockter LM, Pappalardo RT, Head JW III, Collins GC, Spaun NA, Sullivan RJ, Moore JM, Senske DA, Tufts BR, Johnson TV, Belton MJS, Tanaka KL (2000) Geologic mapping of Europa. J Geophys Res 105:22559–22578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Greenberg R, Geissler P, Hoppa G, Tufts BR, Durda DD, Pappalardo R, Head JW, Greeley R, Sullivan R, Carr MH (1998) Tectonic processes on Europa: tidal stresses, mechanical response, and visible features. Icarus 135:64–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Head JW, Pappalardo RT, Sullivan R (1999) Europa: morphological characteristics of ridges and triple bands from Galileo data (E4 and E6) and assessment of a linear diapirism model. J Geophys Res 104:24223–24236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hurford TA, Beyer RA, Schmidt B, Preblich B, Sarid AR, Greenberg R (2005) Flexure of Europa’s lithosphere due to ridge-loading. Icarus 177:380–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kattenhorn SA, Hurford TA (2009) Tectonics of Europa. In: Pappalardo RT, McKinnon WB, Khurana K (eds) Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 199–236Google Scholar
  11. Pappalardo RT et al (1999) Does Europa have a subsurface ocean? Evaluation of the geological evidence. J Geophys Res 104(E10):24015–24055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Prockter L, Patterson GW (2009) Morphology and evolution of Europa’s ridges and bands. In: Pappalardo RT, McKinnon WB, Khurana K (eds) Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 237–258Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Planetary Science DivisionJet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Space Exploration SectorThe Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics LaboratoryLaurelUSA