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Genomic Imprinting and Brain Function

  • Anthony R. Isles
Reference work entry

Abstract

In a small subset of mammalian genes, one of the two inherited copies (alleles) is switched off. Which allele is subject to “genomic imprinting” is dependent on whether it was inherited from the mother or the father. Genomic imprinting is a developmentally determined epigenetic process and results in some “imprinted genes” only ever being expressed from the maternal allele, while others are only ever expressed from the paternal allele. Although an evolutionary enigma, imprinted genes have important effects on physiology and, in particular, play a significant role in brain and behavior.

Keywords

Locus Coeruleus Assisted Reproductive Technology Maternal Care Imprint Gene Dorsal Raphe Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AG

Androgenetic

ART

Artificial reproductive technology

AS

Angelman syndrome

CNV

Copy number variant

GG

Gynogenetic

IC

Imprinting center

mUPD

Maternal uniparental disomy

PG

Parthenogenetic

pUPD

Paternal uniparental disomy

PWS

Prader-Willi syndrome

snoRNA

Small nucleolar RNA

VTA

Ventral tegmental area

Further Reading

  1. Garfield AS, Cowley M, Smith FM et al (2011) Distinct physiological and behavioral functions for parental alleles of imprinted Grb10. Nature 468:534–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gregg C, Zhang J, Weissbourd B et al (2010) High resolution analysis of parent of origin expression in the mouse brain. Science 329(5992):643–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Haig D (2002) Genomic imprinting and kinship. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  4. Isles AR (2010) Evolution of genomic imprinting in humans: does bipedalism have a role? Trends Genet 25:495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Keverne EB, Martel FL, Nevison CM (1996) Primate brain evolution: genetic and functional considerations. Proc Biol Sci B 263:689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li L et al (1999) Regulation of maternal behavior by paternally expressed Peg3. Science 284:330–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meaney MJ, Fergusson-Smith AC (2010) Epigenetic regulation of the neural transcriptome: the meaning of the marks. Nat Neurosci 13:1313–1318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Reik W, Walter J (2001) Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome. Nat Rev Genet 2(1):21–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Wilkinson LS, Davies W, Isles AR (2007) Genomic imprinting effects on brain development and function. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:832–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medicine/Psychological Medicine & NeurologyNeuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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