Brain Control Over Pituitary Gland Hormones

Reference work entry

Abstract

Endocrine organs release their products, hormones, into peripheral blood to travel great distances to exert their biological effects. The brain is also an endocrine organ which releases some of its hormones to travel great distances to elicit their actions. The brain also secretes other hormones into a microscopic circulatory system which transports them very short distances to the pituitary gland where they exert their biological effects. That is, they regulate the synthesis and secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. This chapter will describe the regulation of the pituitary gland by the hormones found in the brain.

Keywords

Polypeptide Glucocorticoid Catecholamine Lactose Prolactin 

Abbreviations

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone (also known as vasopressin)

AHA

Anterior hypothalamic area

AMPA

α-amino-3-hydro-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid

AP

Anterior pituitary

ARC

Arcuate nucleus

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

AVPV

Anteroventral periventricular area

β-LPH

β-lipotropin

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CCK

Cholecystokinin

CLIP

Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide

CNS

Central nervous system

CRH

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone

DA

Dopamine

DMH

Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus

E

Epinephrine

eGFP

Enhanced green-fluorescent protein

EPSPs

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials

ER

Estrogen receptor

FS

Folliculostellate

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GH

Growth hormone

GHRH

Growth hormone–releasing hormone

GnIH

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (also known as luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone)

γ-LPH

γ-lipotropin

GPCR

G-protein-coupled receptors

HPA

Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal

HPG

Hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin)

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor type I (somatomedin C)

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LH

Luteinizing hormone

LHRH

Luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

MB

Mammillary bodies

ME

Median eminence

MPN

Medial preoptic nucleus

MPOA

Medial preoptic area

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (also known as melanotropin)

NE

Norepinephrine

NKB

Neurokinin B

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

NO

Nitric oxide

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

NT

Neurotensin

OC

Optic chiasm

OVLT

Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis

OVX

Ovariectomy

OVX + E

Ovariectomy plus treatment with a basal level of estradiol for 1 week

OVX + E + P

Same as OVX + E, but undergoes a subsequent injection of progesterone at the end of treatment

OT

Oxytocin

PeVN

Periventricular nucleus

PHA

Posterior hypothalamic area

PKA

cAMP-dependent protein kinase

PKC

PLC-dependent protein kinase

PLC

Phospholipase C

POA

Preoptic area

POMC

Proopiomelanocortin

PP

Posterior pituitary

PRH

Prolactin-releasing hormone

PRL

Prolactin

PrRP-31

Prolactin-releasing peptide

PVN

Paraventricular nucleus

RFRP-3

RFamide-related peptide-3

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

SON

Supraoptic nucleus

STT

Somatostatin

T3

Triiodothyronine

T4

Thyroxine

TRH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

VMH

Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus

VP

Vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone)

Further Reading

  1. Conn PM, Freeman ME (eds) (2000) Neuroendocrinology in physiology and medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, A detailed description of the neuroendocrine systems outlined in this chapter. The authors were selected as world renowned experts in their fieldGoogle Scholar
  2. Freeman ME (2006) The neuroendocrine control of the ovarian cycle of the rat. In: Neill JD (ed) Knobil and Neill’s physiology of reproduction, 3rd edn. Academic, New York, A highly detailed description of neuroendocrine control of reproduction in mammals using the rat as a modelGoogle Scholar
  3. Freeman ME, Grattan DR, Houpt TA (2008) The hypothalamus. In: Conn PM (ed) Neuroscience in medicine, 3rd edn. Humana Press, Totowa, A textbook presentation of the anatomy and physiology of the hypothalamusGoogle Scholar
  4. Wade N (1981) The nobel duel: two scientists’ 21-year race to win the world’s most coveted research prize. Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, A compelling history of the discovery of the chemical identity of the hypothalamic neuropeptides. A must read!Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arturo E. Gonzalez-Iglesias
    • 1
  • Marc E. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science and Program in NeuroscienceFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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