Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium and Human Nutrition

  • Barbara J. StoeckerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_9



Adequate intake (AI) – daily mean intake of a nutrient for apparently healthy people.


Chromium can exist in multiple valence states but chromium (III) and chromium (VI) are of most practical importance (Gauglhofer and Bianchi 1991). Trivalent chromium is the most stable oxidation state and is likely to be the form in the diet because of the reducing substances in foods (Panel on Micronutrients 2001). Hexavalent chromium, a strong oxidizing agent which is rapidly reduced to trivalent chromium, is recognized as a pulmonary carcinogen (Gauglhofer and Bianchi 1991).

Determination of chromium in biological samples is very difficult because of the low concentrations of chromium in typical tissue samples. Urine, serum, and plasma are usually in the 0.1–0.2 ng/mL range which is close to the detection limit for most instruments. Contamination control and appropriate background correction systems are essential, and many...

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA