Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium and Nutritional Supplement

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_8

Synonyms

Definition

Chromium: Chromium is a common element that exists in the environment in several oxidation states. Trivalent chromium is a component of the natural diet which is thought to be essential for glucose and lipid homeostasis.

Obesity-associated diseases: Obesity is the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease includes insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death.

Type-2 diabetes: Chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels caused by either a lack or the inability of the body to efficiently utilize insulin.

The use of nutritional supplements has increased during the past years and it is currently estimated that one half of all Americans used one or other form of nutritional...

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References

  1. Anderson RA (1987) Chromium. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Balk EM, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Pittas AG (2007) Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 30:2154–2163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  5. Di Bona KR, Love S, Rhodes NR, McAdory D, Sinha SH, Kern N, Kent J, Strickland J, Wilson A, Beaird J, Ramage J, Rasco JF, Vincent JB (2011) Chromium is not an essential trace element for mammals: effects of a “low-chromium” diet. J Biol Inorg Chem 16:381–390CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Institute of Medicine FaNB (2001) Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Groenier KH, Bilo HJ (2010) Characterization of the metabolic and physiologic response to chromium supplementation in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 59:e17, author reply e18-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. National Research Council FaNB (1989) Recommended dietary allowances. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Vincent JB (ed) (2007) The nutritional biochemistry of chromium (III). Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Wyoming, School of PharmacyCollege of Health Sciences and the Center for Cardiovascular Research and Alternative MedicineLaramieUSA