Cobalt Proteins, Overview
Cobalt is relatively rare among essential trace elements but plays important roles in various living organisms. For instance, cobalamin cofactor comprising a cobalt ion coordinated in a substituted corrin macrocycle is known as vitamin B12, and its deficiency may cause severe damage to mammals. In this entry, the structure and function of vitamin B12-dependent enzymes and non-corrin cobalt enzymes are reviewed.
Cobalt is the 27th element in the periodic table and a transition metal with seven d electrons. It can take oxidation states from –I to + IV and preferably exists as Co2+ and Co3+. Cobalt is relatively rare among essential trace elements, and its concentrations in seawater and the cytosol are 10−11 and 10−9 mol dm−3, respectively. Geochemistry of trace metals suggests that the cobalt ion existed in ancient sea in relatively high...
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