Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Calcium in Heart Function and Diseases

  • Giuseppe Inesi
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_60



Ca2+ signaling refers to coupling of membrane excitation to contractile activation of heart muscle. Mechanisms permitting cyclic rise and reduction of Ca2+ concentration within cardiac muscle cells are required for optimal heart beating. Alterations of these mechanisms are followed by deficient contraction and relaxation.


Ca2+ signaling serves as a common mechanism to couple membrane excitation to intracellular functions in most biological tissues (Clapham 2007). This mechanism is based on: (a) a high gradient between extracellular (or intracellular stores) Ca2+ concentration (mM) and intracellular (cytosolic) Ca2+ concentration (0.1 μM); (b) passive fluxes of signaling Ca2+through selective channels from extracellular fluids (or intracellular stores) into the cytosol; (c) the presence of intracellular proteins, such as calmodulin and troponin,...

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The author is partially supported by NHLBI Grant RO1-69830


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California Pacific Medical Center Research InstituteSan FranciscoUSA