Chromium(VI), Oxidative Cell Damage
Apoptosis, programmed cell death; Ascorbic acid, vitamin C; Aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid; Deferoxamine, desferrioxamine B, desferoxamine B, DFO-B, DFOA, DFB, desferal; Electron spin resonance (ESR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); Proline oxidase, proline dehydrogenase; Sodium formate, formic acid
Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a highly reactive metal capable of causing cellular oxidative damage through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS refers to a diverse group of reactive, short-lived, oxygen-containing species such as O2•−, H2O2, and •OH. Overproduction or decreased removal of ROS leads to oxidative stress in tissues and cells. Cr(VI) can be reduced by various cellular reductants to its lower oxidation states, such as Cr(V) and Cr(VI). During the reduction process, molecular oxygen is reduced to O2•−, which reduces to H2O2 upon dismutation. H2O2 reacts with Cr(V) or Cr(IV) to generate •OH radicals. Thus, Cr(VI) is...
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