Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium(VI), Oxidative Cell Damage

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_6

Synonyms

Definition

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a highly reactive metal capable of causing cellular oxidative damage through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS refers to a diverse group of reactive, short-lived, oxygen-containing species such as O2•−, H2O2, and OH. Overproduction or decreased removal of ROS leads to oxidative stress in tissues and cells. Cr(VI) can be reduced by various cellular reductants to its lower oxidation states, such as Cr(V) and Cr(VI). During the reduction process, molecular oxygen is reduced to O2•−, which reduces to H2O2 upon dismutation. H2O2 reacts with Cr(V) or Cr(IV) to generate OH radicals. Thus, Cr(VI) is...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young-Ok Son
    • 1
  • John Andrew Hitron
    • 1
  • Xianglin Shi
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Center for ToxicologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA