Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Calcium and Viruses

  • Yubin Zhou
  • Shenghui Xue
  • Jenny J. Yang
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_58



Calcium: A metallic element with atomic number of 20. Calcium is one of the most abundant elements on earth. It usually exists as oxidation form with an oxidation state of +2. Ca2+ plays essential roles to regulate a variety of biological events.

Apoptosis: A type of cell death featured by chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, blebbing, and cell shrinkage. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis is a programmed cellular event to eliminate the cells without releasing the harmful materials.

Calcium homeostasis: A mechanism by which the cell or body regulates calcium concentration at the correct level.


Ca 2+, a universal “signal for life and death,” acts as an important intracellular messenger inside eukaryotic cells to regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell motility, secretion, muscle contraction, gene transcription, cell proliferation,...
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Signaling and Gene ExpressionLa Jolla Institute for Allergy and ImmunologyLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Natural Science CenterAtlantaUSA