Calcium and Mitochondrion
Calcium: An alkaline earth metal having atomic number 20, typically found in the 2+ oxidation state.
Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria): An intracellular organelle noted for being the site of oxidative phosphorylation and for producing over 90% of the ATP in a typical animal cell.
Importance of Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transport
Mitochondrial Ca2+ transport is known to perform three functions: (1) to activate steps in the metabolic pathways and increase the rate of ATP production, (2) to modify the shape and distribution of cytosolic Ca2+ transients, and (3) to induce the mitochondrial permeability transition in mitochondrially induced apoptosis or programmed cell death. These functions are extremely important. Intramitochondrial free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) activates important steps in the metabolic pathways, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and the F1F0ATP synthase, which taken...