Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Silver Impregnation Methods in Diagnostics

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_537

Synonyms

Definition

Silver impregnation includes classical techniques, which have revolutionalized histochemistry and neuroscience for over 100 years. Initial probing of the target with silver ion to form silver atom in situ and its subsequent amplification for better visualization are both regulated by catalytic reaction of silver ion, which could be sometimes capricious. Recent progress has achieved sensitive and less capricious visualization of the targets by introducing physical developer. Because the final visualization is uniformly mediated by silver grains, silver-impregnated targets are labeled “argyrophilic” regardless of the method used. In diagnostic neuropathology, however, argyrophilia could be heterogeneous and dependent on the target and method, possibly representing qualitative differences indicative of the nature of the target. This empirical correlation between argyrophilic profiles and tau...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Danscher G, Stoltenberg M, Juhl S (1994) How to detect gold, silver and mercury in human brain and other tissues by autometallographic silver amplification. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 20:454–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Gallyas F (2008) Physicochemical mechanisms of histological silver staining and their utilization for rendering individual silver methods selective and reliable. Biotech Histochem 83:221–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Heinz T (2005) Evolution of the silver and gold stains in neurohistology. Biotech Histochem 80:211–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Horobin RW (2002) Biological staining: mechanisms and theory. Biotech Histochem 77:3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kiernan JA (1996) Review of current silver impregnation: techniques for histological examination of skeletal muscle innervation. J Histotechnol 19:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nauta WJ, Gygax PA (1951) Silver impregnation of degenerating axon terminals in the central nervous system: (1) Technic. (2) Chemical notes. Stain Technol 26:5–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Newman GR, Jasani B (1998) Silver development in microscopy and bioanalysis: past and present. J Pathol 186:119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Prento P (2001) A contribution to the theory of biological staining based on the principles for structural organization of biological macromolecules. Biotech Histochem 76:137–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Switzer RC 3rd (1993) Silver staining methods: their role in detecting neurotoxicity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 679:341–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Uchihara T (2007) Silver diagnosis in neuropathology: principles, practice and revised interpretation. Acta Neuropathol 113:483–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Uchihara T, Nakamura A, Shibuya K, Yagishita S (2011) Specific detection of pathological three-repeat tau after pretreatment with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid in PSP/CBD brains. Brain Pathol 21:180–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Structural NeuropathologyTokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical ScienceTokyoJapan