Calcium in Nervous System
Calcium contained or stored within neurons or extracellular calcium readily available for neurons to utilize for receptor binding, influx through channels, flux through transporters or pumps or for intracellular second messenger signaling is calcium in the nervous system.
Ca2+ and Ca2+ Signaling
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous ion and second messenger found in all living organisms. Ca2+ facilitates cellular responses to external and internal stimuli and is critical for normal cellular function and survival. It regulates the activity of a large number of enzymes involved in a variety of physiological processes. In neurons, Ca2+ controls many cellular processes such as synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, differentiation, and cell fate. Ca2+signals activate specific cellular processes at different rates. For example, some processes such as synaptic vesicle...
Partial support by Grants EY014227 and EY022774 from NIH/NEI; RR027093 and RR022570 from NIH/NCRR; and AG010485, AG022550, and AG027956 from NIH/NIA as well as by a Research to Prevent Blindness Challenge Grant and by the Felix and Carmen Sabates Missouri Endowed Chair in Vision Research (P.K.) is gratefully acknowledged.
- Duncan RS, Hwang SY, Koulen P (2005) Effects of Vesl/Homer proteins on intracellular signaling. Exp Biol Med 230(8):527–535Google Scholar
- Hwang SY, Wei J, Westhoff JH, Duncan RS, Ozawa F, Volpe P, Inokuchi K, Koulen P (2003) Differential functional interaction of two Vesl/Homer protein isoforms with ryanodine receptor type 1: a novel mechanism for control of intracellular calcium signaling. Cell Calcium 34:177–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaja S, Duncan RS, Longoria S, Hilgenberg JD, Payne AJ, Desai NM, Parikh R, Burroughs SL, Gregg EV, Goad DL, Koulen P (2010) Novel mechanism of increased Ca2+ release following oxidative stress in neuronal cells involves type 2 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Neuroscience 175:281–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar