Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Calcium in Nervous System

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_52

Synonyms

Definition

Calcium contained or stored within neurons or extracellular calcium readily available for neurons to utilize for receptor binding, influx through channels, flux through transporters or pumps or for intracellular second messenger signaling is calcium in the nervous system.

Ca2+ and Ca2+ Signaling

The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous ion and second messenger found in all living organisms. Ca2+ facilitates cellular responses to external and internal stimuli and is critical for normal cellular function and survival. It regulates the activity of a large number of enzymes involved in a variety of physiological processes. In neurons, Ca2+ controls many cellular processes such as synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, differentiation, and cell fate. Ca2+signals activate specific cellular processes at different rates. For example, some processes such as synaptic vesicle...

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Notes

Acknowledgments

Partial support by Grants EY014227 and EY022774 from NIH/NEI; RR027093 and RR022570 from NIH/NCRR; and AG010485, AG022550, and AG027956 from NIH/NIA as well as by a Research to Prevent Blindness Challenge Grant and by the Felix and Carmen Sabates Missouri Endowed Chair in Vision Research (P.K.) is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vision Research Center and Departments of Basic Medical Science and OphthalmologySchool of Medicine, University of MissouriKansas CityUSA