Chromium(III) and Immune System
Chromium (III) is an essential trace mineral that potentiates the action of insulin. A number of different chemical forms of chromium have been utilized as dietary chromium supplements. Various studies have reported beneficial effects of supplemental chromium on the immune system function as well as exacerbation of disease pathogenesis. It is well documented that chromium exerts its effects on immune responses either by immunostimulatory or by immunosuppressive mechanisms. These mechanisms have been shown to be mediated by its effects on T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells like macrophages, or via cytokine production.
The common valance states (III and VI) of chromium differ widely in their biological activity. Trivalent chromium is the form of chromium supplemented to humans and animals and is the form that occurs naturally in foods. Chromium (III) is considered an...
- Anderson RA (1994) Stress effects on chromium nutrition of humans and farm animals. In: Lyons TP, Jacques KA (eds) Biotechnology in the feed industry, Proceedings of the Alltech 10th symposium, University Press, NottinghamGoogle Scholar
- Jain SK, Rains JL, Croad JL (2007b) Effect of chromium niacinate and chromium picolinate supplementation on lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels in blood of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Free Radic Biol Med 43:1124–1131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar