Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium(III) and Immune System

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_5



Chromium (III) is an essential trace mineral that potentiates the action of insulin. A number of different chemical forms of chromium have been utilized as dietary chromium supplements. Various studies have reported beneficial effects of supplemental chromium on the immune system function as well as exacerbation of disease pathogenesis. It is well documented that chromium exerts its effects on immune responses either by immunostimulatory or by immunosuppressive mechanisms. These mechanisms have been shown to be mediated by its effects on T and B lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells like macrophages, or via cytokine production.


The common valance states (III and VI) of chromium differ widely in their biological activity. Trivalent chromium is the form of chromium supplemented to humans and animals and is the form that occurs naturally in foods. Chromium (III) is considered an...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA