Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

S100 Proteins

  • Rosario Donato
  • Carolyn L. Geczy
  • David J. Weber
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_48

Definition

Most S100 proteins are Ca2+-binding proteins involved in Ca2+-signal transduction. They have a well-conserved EF-hand Ca2+-binding motif and a second atypical EF-hand. S100s form stable symmetric homodimers and in the presence of appropriate binding targets, dissociation constants for Ca2+-binding reach physiological levels. S100 proteins are generally constitutively expressed in a cell-specific manner. Several are induced by growth factors, cytokines, or Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, in processes associated with stress responses, an activated innate immune system, tumorigenesis, and/or tissue repair. In addition to functions as intracellular regulators, many S100 proteins act extracellularly and particular posttranslational modifications can promote changes in extracellular function. Receptors have been elusive, but include the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), N-glycans and TLRs.

Background

Several classes of Ca2+-binding proteins have evolved from...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosario Donato
    • 1
  • Carolyn L. Geczy
    • 2
  • David J. Weber
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical SciencesUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA