Selenoproteins and the Biosynthesis and Activity of Thyroid Hormones
Selenium is the only trace element which is incorporated into selenoproteins by a distinct proteogenomic pathway. Selenoproteins play an essential role in development and survival of all known organisms. They are mainly involved in regulation of the nuclear, cytosolic as well as extracellular redox homeostasis of the body, cell proliferation, and immune regulation, and in this context, the selenoenzymes are known for the production as well as degradation of active thyroid hormone. The thyroid is the organ with the highest concentration of iodine and selenium among all human tissues and also the organ which continuously produces free oxygen radicals necessary for the thyroid hormone synthesis.
The main selenoenzymes within the thyroid are the cytosolic glutathione peroxidases...