Selenium and Iodothyronine Deiodinases
5′-DI (type I-5′-deiodinase), 5′-DII (type II-5′-deiodinase), 5-DIII (type III-5-deiodinase); D1-3 (widely used, but may be confused with dopamine D1 (D2, D3)-receptors); Deiodinase 1-3 (Dio1-3, official symbols); Dio1 (official gene symbol); Thyroxine deiodinase (TXD); Type I (II, III)-iodothyronine deiodinase
Deiodinases are enzymes capable of iodine elimination from iodothyronines. Iodothyronines are amino acid derivatives that are generated exclusively in the thyroid gland, where tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin are first iodinated at ring positions 3 and 5 and subsequently condensed via an ether bond. Iodothyronine molecules are proteolytically liberated from thyroglobulin and secreted. The major product of the thyroid gland, thyroxine, is a prohormone and needs conversion by 5′-deiodination to yield the nuclear receptor-activating triiodothyronine. Termination of iodothyronine action is achieved by 5-deiodination. In their catalytic centers,...
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