Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Selenoproteins in Prokaryotes

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_466

Synonyms

Definition

Selenocysteine, a structural analog of cysteine but synthesized from serine, is found in members of all three domains of life, Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Selenocysteine is mostly present in the catalytic site of redox-active enzymes with diverse biological functions. The pathway for selenocysteine synthesis and incorporation into proteins during translation differs from that of the 20 canonical amino acids, as it is synthesized bound to a transfer RNA (tRNA) and encoded on the selenoprotein mRNA by UGA, which normally signals termination of translation.

Introduction

The element selenium (Se) is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, and thus a nonmetal, with properties that are intermediate between those of the neighboring elements sulfur and tellurium. Se was first isolated in lead chambers of a sulfuric acid production factory and named after the...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für MikrobiologieTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany