Calcium, Neuronal Sensor Proteins
Reference work entry
Calmodulin, Downstream response element antagonist modulator, Yeast frequenin, Guanylate cyclase activator protein, Potassium channel–interacting protein, Neuronal calcium sensor protein-1.
Intracellular calcium (Ca 2+) regulates a variety of neuronal signal transduction processes in the brain and retina. The effects of changes in neuronal Ca 2+ are mediated primarily by an emerging class of neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins (Weiss et al. 2010) that belong to the EF-hand superfamily. The human genome encodes 14 members of the NCS family. The amino acid sequences of NCS proteins are highly conserved from yeast to humans (Fig. 1). Recoverin, the first NCS protein to be discovered (Dizhoor et al. 1991), and guanylate cyclase–activating proteins (GCAPs) (Dizhoor et al. 1994; Palczewski et al. 1994) are expressed exclusively in the retina where they serve as Ca 2+sensors in vision. Other NCS proteins are...
This work was supported by grants to J.B.A. from the NIH.
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