Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Chromium(III), Cytokines, and Hormones

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_4



Chromium (III) is a transition metal, and its trivalent state is the form most prevalent in organic complexes (Vincent 2004; Cefalu and Hu 2004). Chromium (III) supplements are widely consumed worldwide. Most chromium (III) in the diet is chromium (III), and any hexavalent chromium in food or water is reduced to chromium (III) in the acidic environment of the stomach.


Various studies have reported lower levels of chromium (III) in the blood, lenses, and toenails of diabetic patients compared with those of the normal population (Rajpathak et al. 2004). Thus, subclinical chromium (III) deficiency may be a contributor to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, particularly in aging populations or in populations that have increased chromium (III) requirements because of high sugar diets. Epidemiological data concerning chromium (III) intake and the risk of CVD are limited. Results...

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The author is supported by grants from the NIDDK, the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health (RO1 DK072433), and the Malcolm Feist Endowed Chair in Diabetes. The authors thank Ms. Georgia Morgan for excellent editing of this manuscript.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsLouisiana State University Health Sciences CenterShreveportUSA