Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins

2013 Edition
| Editors: Robert H. Kretsinger, Vladimir N. Uversky, Eugene A. Permyakov

Cadmium, Effect on Transport Across Cell Membranes

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1533-6_29

Introduction

Cadmium (Cd2+) is an ever-present and global environmental pollutant. Current industrial Cd2+ emission has been drastically reduced, but Cd2+ continues to be a health hazard (Nawrot et al. 2010). Historically, accumulated Cd2+ cannot be degraded, and its half-life in the body is long (10–30 years). Several organs are affected by this heavy metal. In general, long-term exposure studies show skeletal damage, lung disease, and lung cancer. Since 1993, Cd2+ has been classified as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The main target for chronic, low-level Cd2+ exposure, however, is the kidney. Cd2+ intoxication leads to proximal tubule dysfunction. The specific mechanisms, however, by which it produces adverse effects on the kidney, have yet to be fully unraveled. Next to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (Cuypers et al. 2010), interference with gene expression, and repair of DNA (Hartwig 2010), Cd2+also interacts with transport...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Centre for Environmental SciencesHasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium
  2. 2.Biomedical InstituteHasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium