Transport of cadmium ion across cellular membranes of eukaryotic cells through receptors, channels, solute carriers, or ATPases.
Cadmium is a toxic transition metal and has no biological function in eukaryotic organisms (with the exception of certain forms of marine phytoplankton). The toxicologically relevant chemical form of cadmium is the divalent cadmium ion (Cd2+). Cd2+ taken up by cells and organisms accumulates because it is eliminated very slowly (e.g., in the human kidney Cd2+ has a half-time of 10–30 years). Cd2+ binds to many cellular and/or extracellular proteins which store the metal and also partly contribute to its detoxification. Binding may be nonspecific and is characterized by a low affinity between Cd2+ and the protein, like serum albumin with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of ∼10−4 M, or the interaction may be more specific by binding to certain amino acid residues, in particular...
Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (TH 345/8-1, 10-1, and 11-1), ZBAF, and Stiftung Westermann-Westdorp, Essen, Germany